Dopamine and retinal function

@article{Witkovsky2004DopamineAR,
  title={Dopamine and retinal function},
  author={Paul Witkovsky},
  journal={Documenta Ophthalmologica},
  year={2004},
  volume={108},
  pages={17-39}
}
This review summarizes the experimental evidence in support of dopamine's role as a chemical messenger for light adaptation. Dopamine is released by a unique set of amacrine cells and activates D1 and D2 dopamine receptors distributed throughout the retina. Multiple dopamine-dependent physiological mechanisms result in an increased signal flow through cone circuits and a diminution of signal flow through rod circuits. Dopamine also has multiple trophic roles in retinal function related to… 
The Role of Dopamine in Controlling Retinal Photoreceptor Function in Vertebrates
TLDR
Dopamine is synthesized cyclically in a special population of dopaminergic amacrine cells and its content in the retina increases in the daytime and decreases at night, and dopamine may regulate the phototransduction cascade and other cellular functions in photoreceptors.
Retinal Dopamine Mediates Multiple Dimensions of Light-Adapted Vision
TLDR
It is indicated that dopamine is necessary for the circadian nature of light-adapted vision as well as optimal contrast detection and acuity and appears to be due to the ongoing bioavailability of dopamine rather than developmental effects.
The Role of Dopamine in Fine-Tuning Cone- and Rod-Driven Vision
TLDR
The role of dopamine in retinal processing was expanded from its well-established function of supporting the transition between rod- and cone-dominant vision to enhancing light responses in the dark or under dim light.
Role of dopamine in distal retina
  • E. Popova
  • Biology, Medicine
    Journal of Comparative Physiology A
  • 2014
TLDR
This review summarized current knowledge about the types of the dopaminergic neurons and receptors in the retina as well as the effects of dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists on the light responses of photoreceptors, horizontal and bipolar cells in both nonmammalian and mammalian retina.
Role of Melatonin and Dopamine in the Regulation of Retinal Circadian Rhythms
TLDR
It is hoped that future genomic studies will be performed on human populations with ocular diseases to determine if polymorphisms in genes encoding enzymes—or receptors—involved in the melatonin and dopamine systems are associated with specific visual disorders.
Functional Heterogeneity of Retinal Dopaminergic Neurons Underlying Their Multiple Roles in Vision
TLDR
The functional heterogeneity revealed in dopaminergic amacrine cells provides a cellular basis for the multiple roles of dopamineree neurons in vision and is likely a general property of dopaminaergic neurons throughout the CNS.
Dopamine-Mediated Circadian and Light/Dark-Adaptive Modulation of Chemical and Electrical Synapses in the Outer Retina
TLDR
The extrinsic and intrinsic modulatory processes that enable neural circuits in the retina to optimize their visual performance throughout day and night as the ambient light level changes by ~10 billion-fold are described and discussed.
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