Dopamine and Addiction.

  title={Dopamine and Addiction.},
  author={Roy A Wise and Mykel A. Robble},
  journal={Annual review of psychology},
Addiction is commonly identified with habitual nonmedical self-administration of drugs. It is usually defined by characteristics of intoxication or by characteristics of withdrawal symptoms. Such addictions can also be defined in terms of the brain mechanisms they activate; most addictive drugs cause elevations in extracellular levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Animals unable to synthesize or use dopamine lack the conditioned reflexes discussed by Pavlov or the appetitive behavior… 
Dopamine Circuit Mechanisms of Addiction-Like Behaviors
It is suggested that striatal dopamine is essential for not only positive symptom features of SUDs, but also for impairments in decision making that underlie compulsive behavior, reduced sociality, and risk taking.
Consolidating the Circuit Model for Addiction.
The genetic and epigenetic correlates of individual vulnerability are discussed, and many recent data converge on a gain-of-function explanation for circuit remodeling, revealing blueprints for novel addiction therapies.
Treatment with dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) inhibitors prevents morphine use and relapse-like behavior in rats
Reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior induced by a conditioned cue previously associated with morphine delivery was attenuated following repeated administration of DSF or NEP during the abstinence period, suggesting the significance of DBH inhibition as a potential pharmacotherapy against morphine use disorders.
Involvement of the ghrelin system in the maintenance and reinstatement of cocaine-motivated behaviors: a role of adrenergic action at peripheral β1 receptors
It is demonstrated that the endogenous ghrelin system plays an important role in cocaine-related addictive behaviors and suggest that manipulating and targeting this system may be viable for mitigating cocaine use disorder.
Cholinergic and dopaminergic-mediated motivated behavior in healthy states and in substance use and mood disorders.
It is suggested that treatments targeting cholinergic activity may be useful in ameliorating motivational disruptions associated with substance use and comorbid substanceuse and mood disorders.
Cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system in reward processing and addiction: from mechanisms to interventions

  • R. Spanagel
  • Biology, Medicine
    Dialogues in clinical neuroscience
  • 2020
In conclusion, pharmacological blockade of endocannabinoid signaling should lead to a reduction in drug craving and subsequently should reduce relapse behavior in addicted individuals.
Reduced cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior in Plcb1 +/− mice
It is found that heterozygous deletion of the Plcb1 gene decreases cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking, pointing at PLCB1 as a possible therapeutic target for preventing relapse and treating cocaine addiction.
Psychostimulant Use Disorder, an Unmet Therapeutic Goal: Can Modafinil Narrow the Gap?
Clinical and preclinical research on MOD and its R-enantiomer, R-MOD, are highlighted and reported on the effects of MOD on psychostimulant-induced appearance of several symptoms that could intensify the severity of the disease, besides the potential therapeutic effects ofMOD on PSUD.
Addictiveness: an independent dimension in the psychotic syndrome. Presentation of the Addictiveness in the Psychotic Syndrome Assessment Scale (APSAS)
Results of the application of SEAPS suggest good psychometric characteristics as well as the independency of adictivity respect with other clinical dimensions, and the Scale for the Evaluation of Adictivity in the Psychotic Syndrome (SEAPS) wants to be an integrated and easy to use tool for evaluating adictiveness in the psychotic disorders.