Dopamine D4 receptor (D4DR) exon III polymorphism associated with the human personality trait of Novelty Seeking

  title={Dopamine D4 receptor (D4DR) exon III polymorphism associated with the human personality trait of Novelty Seeking},
  author={Richard P. Ebstein and Olga Novick and Roberto Umansky and Beatrice Priel and Yamima Osher and Darren Blaine and Estelle R. Bennett and Lubov Nemanov and Miri Katz and Robert H. Belmaker},
  journal={Nature Genetics},
Human personality traits which can be reliably measured by any of a number of rating scales, show a considerable heritable component1,2. The tridimensional personality questionnaire (TPQ) is one such instrument and was designed by Cloninger to measure four distinct domains of temperament — Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence and Persistence — that are hypothesized to be based on distinct neurochemical and genetic substrates. Cloninger proposed that individual variations in the… 
Dopamine D4 receptor exon III alleles and variation of novelty seeking in alcoholics.
The present results do not provide evidence that the DRD4*7R allele contributes a common and relevant effect to alcohol-seeking behavior in the sample of alcoholics.
Dopamine D4 Receptor Exon III Polymorphism, Adverse Life Events and Personality Traits in a Nonclinical German Adult Sample
The results indicate gender-specific influences of the DRD4 gene on human behavior and invite researchers to further investigate gene-environment correlations on personality traits.
Lack of association between dopamine D4 receptor gene and personality traits
The dopamine D4 receptor gene is probably not of importance to the different personality dimensions as measured by the Karolinska Scales of Personality, but there was a tendency in the direction of the proposed association.
5-HT2C (HTR2C) serotonin receptor gene polymorphism associated with the human personality trait of reward dependence: interaction with dopamine D4 receptor (D4DR) and dopamine D3 receptor (D3DR) polymorphisms.
Three-way analysis of variance demonstrated that reward dependence and persistence scores were significantly reduced by the presence of the less common 5-HT2Cser polymorphism, and a significant interaction between the two dopamine receptor polymorphisms and the serotonin polymorphism on reward dependence.
Association study between dopamine D3 receptor gene variant and personality traits
  • E. Jönsson, E. Burgert, H. Bergman
  • Psychology
    American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics
  • 2003
It is concluded that the investigated DRD3 polymorphism does not have a major impact on personality in the investigated population.
The Dopamine D4 Receptor (DRD4) Exon 3 VNTR Contributes to Adaptive Personality Differences in an Italian Small Island Population
It is suggested that emigration might have caused gene flow out the island that resulted in somewhat unpredictable changes in the frequencies of specific alleles, thus influencing islander personality traits.
Novelty seeking and the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) revisited in Asians: Haplotype characterization and relevance of the 2‐repeat allele
It is suggested that genetic association analyses can benefit by consideration of the shared functional and evolutionary attributes of the DRD4 2R and 7R alleles.
Human novelty-seeking personality traits and dopamine D4 receptor polymorphisms: a twin and genetic association study.
No significant associations were observed between novelty-seeking or positive emotional experience and these D4DR polymorphisms, which seems unlikely to represent measurement or genetic differences across studies, although environmental differences may be possible.


Population and familial association between the D4 dopamine receptor gene and measures of Novelty Seeking
The relationship between DADR exon III sequence variants and personality test scores in a population of 315 mostly male siblings, other family members and individuals from the United States was investigated and the association between long alleles ofExon III and personality traits related to Novelty Seeking was confirmed.
Multiple dopamine D4 receptor variants in the human population
This is the first report of a receptor in the catecholamine receptor family that displays polymorphic variation in the human population and such variation among humans may underlie individual differences in susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disease and in responsiveness to antipsychotic medication.
A hypervariable segment in the human dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene.
The human dopamine D4 receptor contains a novel polymorphism within the putative third cytoplasmic loop of the protein, characterized by a varying number of direct imperfect 48-bp repeats in the gene.
Dopamine D4 receptor variants in unrelated schizophrenic cases and controls.
No statistically significant difference in the distribution of the alleles existed between cases and controls, although a trend towards a greater prevalence of homozygotes for the 4-repeat allele was observed in schizophrenics.
Cloning of the gene for a human dopamine D4 receptor with high affinity for the antipsychotic clozapine
The cloning of a gene that encodes a dopamine receptor gene that has high homology to the human dopamine D2 and D3 receptor genes is reported, which suggests the existence of other types of dopamine receptors which are more sensitive to clozapine.
Dopamine D4 receptor repeat: analysis of different native and mutant forms of the human and rat genes.
Comparisons of the pharmacological binding profiles of seven different polymorphic variants of the human D4 receptor, the rat D4 receptors, and two different human D3 receptor mutants suggest that the polymorphic repeat sequence has little influence on D4 binding profiles and might not be essential for G protein interaction.
Preliminary evidence for an association of a dinucleotide repeat polymorphism at the MAOA gene with early onset alcoholism/substance abuse.
Preliminary data suggest that further exploration of the relationship between the MAOA gene and behavioral traits in an expanded sample is warranted, with "long" alleles associated with both increased risk for the disorder and lower age of onset of substance abuse.
Association and linkage: complementary strategies for complex disorders.
Nothen et al argue persuasively for the use of association studies to identify the genetic defects responsible for the functional psychoses (schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder) using anonymous markers and relying upon linkage disequilibrium.
A psychobiological model of temperament and character.
A psychobiological model of the structure and development of personality that accounts for dimensions of both temperament and character is described, for the first time, for three dimensions of character that mature in adulthood and influence personal and social effectiveness by insight learning about self-concepts.
Dopamine receptor pharmacology.