Dopamine D2 densities and the schizophrenic brain

@article{Zakzanis1998DopamineDD,
  title={Dopamine D2 densities and the schizophrenic brain},
  author={Konstantine K. Zakzanis and Kevin T. Hansen},
  journal={Schizophrenia Research},
  year={1998},
  volume={32},
  pages={201-206}
}

Dopamine receptors in the brains of schizophrenia patients: a meta‐analysis of the findings

TLDR
It is concluded that a subgroup of schizophrenia patients manifests increased DA D 2 receptor density and decreased receptor affinity, and in the absence of medication, these changes may become more pronounced with age.

The primacy of cognition in schizophrenia.

  • R. Heinrichs
  • Psychology, Medicine
    The American psychologist
  • 2005
TLDR
Cognitive tasks and concepts are used increasingly in schizophrenia science and treatment and chronic stress, genes, brain disturbances, task structure, gender, and sociocultural background may all enhance the sensitivity of cognitive performance to schizophrenia.

The nature of dopamine dysfunction in schizophrenia and what this means for treatment.

TLDR
The locus of the largest dopaminergic abnormality in schizophrenia is presynaptic, which affects dopamine synthesis capacity, baseline synaptic dopamine levels, and dopamine release, and future drug development should focus on the control of presYNaptic dopamine synthesis and release capacity.

Schizotypy trait and striatal dopamine receptors in healthy volunteers

Deconstructing psychosis with human brain imaging.

TLDR
This review synthesizes the current knowledge on the neurobiology of psychosis from an array of in vivo brain-imaging studies and consistently replicated associations of psychotic symptoms and cognitive impairment in both structural and functional imaging in schizophrenia but not in bipolar disorder.

Postmortem studies in schizophrenia

TLDR
It can now be clearly concluded that there are structural cerebral abnormalities in schizophrenia that are intrinsic to the disorder.

Neurochemical dysfunction in treated and nontreated schizophrenia – a retrospective analysis of in vivo imaging studies

TLDR
It may be hypothesized that schizophrenia initially is characterized by an impaired mechanism of D2 autoreceptor and heteroreceptor sensitization leading to sensitization instead of desensitization in response to increased levels of neostriatal DA.

Neurochemical brain imaging investigations of schizophrenia

Density of striatal D2 receptors in untreated first-episode psychosis: An I123-IBZM SPECT study

Preliminary evidence of striatal D2 receptor density as a possible biological marker of prognosis in naive schizophrenic patients

...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 31 REFERENCES

Stereotypy, schizophrenia and dopamine D2 receptor binding in the basal ganglia

TLDR
Investigation of the performance of antipsychotic-drug-free schizophrenic patients and healthy control subjects on a neuropsychological measure of stereotypy correlated this with in vivo striatal dopamine D2 receptor binding, as measured by 123I-iodobenzamide single photon emission tomography, to suggest a similar disturbance underlying the phenomenon in schizophrenia.

D2 Dopamine Receptor Binding in the Basal Ganglia of Antipsychotic-Free Schizophrenic Patients

TLDR
The results suggest that alterations in striatal D2 receptor distribution and density do occur in schizophrenia, and possibly reflect wider disruptions in prefrontal-striatal-limbic circuits.

No D2 receptor increase in PET study of schizophrenia.

TLDR
It is now possible to examine D2dopamine receptor binding in the brains of living human subjects by means of new brain-imaging techniques and radiolabeled receptor ligands and evidence of a slight increase in D2Dopamine receptors in a group of schizophrenic patients is reported.

Positron emission tomography reveals elevated D2 dopamine receptors in drug-naive schizophrenics.

TLDR
Schizophrenia itself is associated with an increase in brain D2 dopamine receptor density, and the densities in the caudate nucleus were higher in both groups of patients than in the normal volunteers.

Bimodal distribution of dopamine receptor densities in brains of schizophrenics.

TLDR
The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia was examined by measuring the density of dopamine receptors in the postmortem brains of 81 control subjects and 59 schizophrenics from four different countries, providing direct evidence for two distinct categories of schizophrenia.

Are Striatal Dopamine D4 Receptors Increased in Schizophrenia?

TLDR
The increase in D2‐like receptor density in schizophrenia is due not to an increase in number of D4 sites in the disease, but to an up‐regulation of D2 or D3 receptors probably induced by chronic treatment with antipsychotic drugs.

Striatal D2 dopamine receptor characteristics in neuroleptic-naive schizophrenic patients studied with positron emission tomography.

TLDR
There are no general changes in D2 dopamine receptor Bmax or Kd values in neuroleptic-naive schizophrenics, but there may be a subgroup of patients with aberrant striatal D 2 dopamine receptor characteristics in vivo.

D2 dopamine receptors in neuroleptic-naive schizophrenic patients. A positron emission tomography study with [11C]raclopride.

TLDR
The hypothesis of generally elevated central D2 dopamine receptor densities in schizophrenia was not supported by the present findings, and significantly higher densities were found in the left than in the right putamen but not in the caudate nucleus.