Dopamine Agonist Therapy for Hyperprolactinemia

  title={Dopamine Agonist Therapy for Hyperprolactinemia},
  author={Brandon J. Bankowski and Howard A. Zacur},
  journal={Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology},
Prolactin Prolactin is a 199-amino acid protein synthesized within and secreted from lactotropes in the anterior pituitary gland. Numerous biologic actions have been ascribed to this protein, but it is most widely known for its stimulatory actions upon the milkproducing cells of the breast. After expulsion of the placenta after childbirth, breast milk letdown occurs as a consequence of the decline in levels of estradiol, estrone, estriol, and progesterone. Breast milk production begins and… 

Hyperprolactinemia and Woman’s Health

The amount of PRL can be an indicator for the amount of sexual satisfaction and relaxation and another effect is to provide the body with sexual gratification after sexual acts.

Treatment of pituitary tumors

Differences between the effectiveness and the resistance of different dopaminergic agents as well as the future perspectives of them in the therapy of pituitary tumors are discussed.

Managing Prolactinomas during Pregnancy

The therapeutic approach to prolactinoma during pregnancy is outlined, with emphasis on the safety of available DA therapy and the data on fetal exposure to DAs during pregnancy far exceeds that of cabergoline with no association of increased risk of pregnancy loss and premature delivery.

Current treatment issues in female hyperprolactinaemia.

  • P. Crosignani
  • Medicine, Biology
    European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology
  • 2006

Antipsychotic‐Induced Hyperprolactinemia

To prevent or alleviate the condition, tailoring an antipsychotic drug regimen to each individual patient is essential, and the risk of hyperprolactinemia can be minimized by using the lowest effective dose of the antipsychotics agent.

Diagnosis and management of galactorrhea.

Tests for pregnancy, serum prolactin level and serum thyroid-stimulating hormone level, and magnetic resonance imaging are important diagnostic tools that should be employed when clinically indicated, and the underlying cause of galactorrhea should be treated when possible.

Prolactin Level in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): An approach to the diagnosis and management.

Investigating increased level of prolactin in PCOS patients is recommended to detect the causes of hyperprolactinemia, especially macroprolACTinemia.

Quinagolide--a valuable treatment option for hyperprolactinaemia.

Quinagolide should be considered as a first-line therapy in the treatment of hyperprolactinaemia, due to its reduced side effect profile, simple and rapid titration over just 7 days, once-daily dosing regimen and easy to use starter pack.

Pregnancy in Hyperprolactinemic Infertile Women Treated with Vaginal Bromocriptine: Report of Two Cases and Review of the Literature

It can be concluded that a couple’s fertility does not appear to be significantly affected by the persistent local presence of bromocriptine, and the therapy was discontinued during pregnancy, without complications.


Cbegoline is a cost effective first line therapy in the management of infertile women with hyperprolactinaemia and it is found that out of the 69 patients that got pregnant, 13 (18.8%) got pregnant while on car begoline therapy.



Dopamine as a prolactin (PRL) inhibitor.

PRL homeostasis should be viewed in the context of a fine balance between the action of dopamine as an inhibitor and the many hypothalamic, systemic, and local factors acting as stimulators, none of which has yet emerged as a primary PRL releasing factor.

Inhibition of gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone release by prolactin from GT1 neuronal cell lines through prolactin receptors.

Results demonstrate that PRL inhibits GnRH release and possibly gene expression in GnRH neurons, and this action appears to be mediated through prolactin receptors expressed by the cells.

Inhibition of gonadotropin and prolactin release by dopamine: effect of endogenous estradiol levels.

While E2 seems to augment the sensitivity of PRL inhibition by DA, its does not seem to directly influence gonadotropin sensitivity to DA inhibition, which suggests that DA may exert its effect by inhibiting LRF release.

Prolactin-producing pituitary tumor: resistance to dopamine agonist therapy. Case report.

A 14-year-old girl presented with a rapidly growing, invasive prolactin-producing pituitary tumor that failed to respond to dopamine agonist medication. Histological, immunocytochemical, and

Pituitary Prolactin-Secreting Tumor Formation: Recent Developments

Improved knowledge on tumorigenesis of prolactinomas, especially in the rat model, was noted and the hypothesis that Prolactinoma growth is the result of pathological changes in the adenohypophysis and/or hypothalamus was favored.

A radioimmunoassay for human prolactin.

  • P. HwangH. GuydaH. Friesen
  • Medicine, Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1971
The concentration of prolactin in the serum of normal children and adults of either sex was usually below 30 ng/ml, while very high concentrations were observed in newborn infants, and during pregnancy, the concentration rose progressively from an average of 30 ng-ml in the first trimester to 200 ng-ML at term.

A Comparative Review of the Tolerability Profiles of Dopamine Agonists in the Treatment of Hyperprolactinaemia and Inhibition of Lactation

Cabergoline, a long-acting dopamine agonist administered once or twice weekly, has been shown to be significantly more effective than bromocriptine in suppressing prolactin secretion in hyperprolactinaemic patients, and is better tolerated, particularly in terms of nausea and vomiting.

Long-term treatment of prolactin-secreting macroadenomas with pergolide.

Although most PRL-secreting pituitary tumors are microadenomas at presentation, many, and particularly those in men, are macroadenomas at the time of diagnosis, and the initial treatment of macroprolactinomas includes tumor shrinkage with relief of neurological symptoms, in addition to the lowering of PRL and restoration of gonadal function.

Clinical and hormonal response to bromocriptin (CB-154) in the galactorrhea syndromes.

Nine female patients with galactorrhea selected for treatment with Bromocriptin (CB-154), a specific inhibitor of prolactin secretion induced a fall in serum hPRL accompanied by cessation of milk secretion in 8 patients, indicating a suprasellar cause for the patients' failure to cycle.

Long-term treatment of bromocriptine-intolerant prolactinoma patients with CV 205-502.

The efficacy and safety of long-term treatment with a new dopaminergic agent, CV 205-502 (CV), in prolactinoma patients previously intolerant of bromocriptine is evaluated.