Dominance, aggression and testosterone in wild chimpanzees: a test of the ‘challenge hypothesis’

@article{Muller2004DominanceAA,
  title={Dominance, aggression and testosterone in wild chimpanzees: a test of the ‘challenge hypothesis’},
  author={M. Muller and R. Wrangham},
  journal={Animal Behaviour},
  year={2004},
  volume={67},
  pages={113-123}
}
The ‘challenge hypothesis’ posits that variation in male testosterone levels is more closely associated with aggression in reproductive contexts than it is with changes in reproductive physiology. Numerous bird studies support this idea, but few tests have been conducted with primates. We conducted behavioural observations and noninvasive hormone sampling of 11 male chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, in the Kanyawara study site, Kibale National Park, to test predictions of the… Expand

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