Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) are sensitive to the attentional state of humans.

@article{Call2003DomesticD,
  title={Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) are sensitive to the attentional state of humans.},
  author={Josep Call and Juliane Br{\"a}uer and Juliane Kaminski and Michael Tomasello},
  journal={Journal of comparative psychology},
  year={2003},
  volume={117 3},
  pages={
          257-63
        }
}
Twelve domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) were given a series of trials in which they were forbidden to take a piece of visible food. In some trials, the human continued to look at the dog throughout the trial (control condition), whereas in others, the human (a) left the room, (b) turned her back, (c) engaged in a distracting activity, or (d) closed her eyes. Dogs behaved in clearly different ways in most of the conditions in which the human did not watch them compared with the control condition… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Can domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) use referential emotional expressions to locate hidden food?
TLDR
It is suggested that some domestic dogs recognize both the directedness and the valence of some human emotional expressions.
Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) flexibly adjust their human-directed behavior to the actions of their human partners in a problem situation
TLDR
The results of the present study indicate that dogs may have a limited understanding of physical problems and how they can be solved by a human partner, Nevertheless, dogs are able to adjust their behavior to situation-specific characteristics of their human partner’s behavior.
Obey or not obey? Dogs (Canis familiaris) behave differently in response to attentional states of their owners.
Sixteen domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) were tested in a familiar context in a series of 1-min trials on how well they obeyed after being told by their owner to lie down. Food was used in 1/3 of all
Effect of training and familiarity on responsiveness to human cues in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris)
TLDR
Support is provided for the presence of an evolved adaptation to exploit social cues provided by humans that can be augmented by familiarity with the cue giver, however, additional joint activity as experienced in an intensive training regime does not seem to increase accuracy in following human-given cues.
hen do dogs help humans ?
TLDR
It is concluded that dogs are motivated to help and that an experimenter's natural behaviours facilitated the dogs’ recognition of the human’s goal.
What did domestication do to dogs? A new account of dogs' sensitivity to human actions
TLDR
The Two Stage Hypothesis is proposed, according to which the sensitivity of an individual animal to human actions depends on acceptance of humans as social companions, and conditioning to follow human limbs, without requiring the use of additional mechanisms.
Wolves outperform dogs in following human social cues
Visual perspective taking in dogs (Canis familiaris) in the presence of barriers
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 22 REFERENCES
Cues to food location that domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) of different ages do and do not use
TLDR
The results suggest the possibility that domestic dogs have evolved an adaptive specialization for using human-produced directional cues in a goal-directed (especially foraging) context.
Communication of Food Location Between Human and Dog ( Canis Familiaris )
Two domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) participated in a series of studies in which they communicated with a human about the location of hidden food. In the first study both dogs were able to follow
Use of human-given cues by domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) and horses (Equus caballus)
TLDR
The results of this experiment suggest that animals’ use of human given communicative signals depends on cognitive ability, the evolutionary consequences of domestication and enculturation by humans within the individual’s lifetime.
Use of experimenter-given cues in dogs
TLDR
It is suggested that the phenomenon of dogs responding to cues given by humans is better analysed as a case of interspecific communication than in terms of discrimination learning.
Domestic Dogs (Canis familiaris) Use Human and Conspecific Social Cues to Locate Hidden Food
Ten domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) of different breeds and ages were exposed to 2 different social cues indicating the location of hidden food, each provided by both a human informant and a
Chimpanzees know what conspecifics do and do not see
TLDR
It is suggested that chimpanzees know what conspecifics can and cannot see, and, furthermore, that they use this knowledge to devise effective social-cognitive strategies in naturally occurring food competition situations.
Do chimpanzees know what conspecifics know?
TLDR
Chimpanzees know what conspecifics have and have not seen (do and do not know), and that they use this information to devise effective social-cognitive strategies.
Five primate species follow the visual gaze of conspecifics
TLDR
Individuals from five primate species were tested experimentally for their ability to follow the visual gaze of conspecifics to an outside object, and individuals from all species reliably followed the gaze of ConspecificS.
What young chimpanzees know about seeing.
  • D. Povinelli, T. Eddy
  • Psychology, Biology
    Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development
  • 1996
TLDR
The findings provide little evidence that young chimpanzees understand seeing as a mental event and demonstrate that, even though young chimpanzee subjects spontaneously attend to and follow the visual gaze of others, they simultaneously appear oblivious to the attentional significance of that gaze.
Production and comprehension of referential pointing by orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus).
TLDR
In all experiments the enculturated orangutan showed better understanding of pointing than the captive orangutans, consistent with recent studies that have found differences in the cognitive and social-cognitive abilities of apes that have had different types of experience with humans.
...
1
2
3
...