Domestic Audience Costs in International Relations: An Experimental Approach

@article{Tomz2007DomesticAC,
  title={Domestic Audience Costs in International Relations: An Experimental Approach},
  author={Michael Tomz},
  journal={International Organization},
  year={2007},
  volume={61},
  pages={821 - 840}
}
  • Michael Tomz
  • Published 1 October 2007
  • Political Science
  • International Organization
What makes international threats credible? Recent theories point to domestic audience costs—the domestic price a leader would pay for making foreign threats and then backing down. This article provides the first direct evidence of audience costs. The analysis, based on experiments embedded in public opinion surveys, shows that audience costs exist across a wide range of conditions and increase with the level of escalation. The costs are evident throughout the population, and especially among… 
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This article reports on an audience costs experiment embedded into a survey of the British public (N = 2235). We extend previous research into audience costs in three main directions. First, we
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Domestic audience costs can help leaders establish credible commitments by tying their hands. Most studies assume these costs without explaining how they arise. I link domestic audience costs to the
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Scholars of international relations usually argue that democracies are better able to signal their foreign policy intentions than nondemocracies, in part because democracies have an advantage in
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