Does the autistic child have a “theory of mind” ?

@article{BaronCohen1985DoesTA,
  title={Does the autistic child have a “theory of mind” ?},
  author={Simon Baron-Cohen and Alan M. Leslie and Uta Frith},
  journal={Cognition},
  year={1985},
  volume={21},
  pages={37-46}
}

Figures and Tables from this paper

Are autistic children “Behaviorists”? An examination of their mental-physical and appearance-reality distinctions
  • S. Baron-Cohen
  • Psychology
    Journal of autism and developmental disorders
  • 1989
TLDR
It is argued that autistic children's failure to make A-R distinctions is consistent with Leslie's (1987) metarepresentation theory of autism.
Does the autistic child have a theory of society ?
Social stereotypes provide a cognitively “inexpensive” if often inaccurate way to predict the behavior of others. We found that in spite of autistic children’s profound impairment in the ability to
The autistic child's theory of mind: a case of specific developmental delay.
  • S. Baron-Cohen
  • Psychology
    Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines
  • 1989
TLDR
The present study examines the 20% of autistic children who have a theory of mind at the lowest level, and tests their ability to use a theoryOf mind at higher levels (i.e. second-order belief attribution).
Deafness, conversation and theory of mind.
  • C. PetersonM. Siegal
  • Psychology
    Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines
  • 1995
TLDR
This study explored the development of a theory of mind in a group of 26 signing, prelingually-deaf Australian children of normal intelligence, aged 8-13 years, and revealed that 65% of these deaf children failed a simple test of false belief, which normal preschoolers, mentally retarded children, and other handicapped groups routinely pass at a mental age of 4-5 years.
The autistic child's impaired conception of mental states
  • P. Harris
  • Psychology, Philosophy
    Development and Psychopathology
  • 1989
Abstract I argue that Mundy and Sigman (1989) are right to question Leslie's (1987) explanation of the autistic syndrome, but that they do so for the wrong reasons. They assert that there is a lag
Autistic social dysfunction: some limitations of the theory of mind hypothesis.
TLDR
The results indicate that the social dysfunction in autism affects very basic and early emerging social behaviors which are typically present prior to the time at which even the earliest precursors of a theory of mind apparently emerge.
The theory of mind hypothesis of autism: explanation, evidence and assessment.
  • J. Boucher
  • Psychology, Biology
    The British journal of disorders of communication
  • 1989
TLDR
It is concluded that impaired metarepresentational ability is unlikely to be the primary, or fundamental, behavioural difficulty in autism, but that the hypothesis provides an important new way of looking at and understanding autistic behaviour.
Autism and epistemology IV: Does autism need a theory of mind?
  • G. Fisch
  • Psychology, Biology
    American journal of medical genetics. Part A
  • 2013
TLDR
Recent studies of mirror neurons, their location and interconnections in brain, their relationship to social behavior and language, and the effect of lesions there on speech, language and social behavior, strongly suggests that a neurobiological as opposed to neurocognitive model of autism is a more parsimonious explanation for the social and behavioral phenotypes observed in autism.
Autistic children's knowledge of thinking and feeling states in other people.
TLDR
It is argued that the results reflect developmental factors and that claims for an autism specific problem in these kinds of social/cognitive processing may need further exploration.
[Specificity hypothesis of a theory of mind deficit in early childhood autism].
TLDR
The findings suggest that the clinical diagnosis of autism is not precise enough to distinguish between autism and nonautistic mental handicap and seems important to administer the ADI-R during the diagnostic process.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 74 REFERENCES
Early childhood autism and the question of egocentrism
  • R. Hobson
  • Psychology
    Journal of autism and developmental disorders
  • 1984
TLDR
The results indicate that autistic children are no more impaired in their recognition of visuospatial perspectives than are normal children of comparable intellectual level in tests of operational thinking, and render it improbable that autisticChildren are especially “egocentric” in their appreciation of Visuosp spatial perspectives.
Sensorimotor skills and language comprehension in autistic children
TLDR
The fact that the autistic children were so impaired in language even with fairly good sensorimotor skills suggests that these skills, particularly object permanence, play a minor role in their language acquisition.
How far can autistic children go in matters of social adaptation?
The case histories of 9 autistic children, 8 boys and 1 girl, selected from a total of 96 so diagnosed at The John Hopkins Hospital prior to 1953, are presented in some detail and discussed. These
Compliance and resistance in autistic children
TLDR
A positive relationship was found between use of spoken language and successful performance of the task and no child was negativistic, but a subsequent exact replication of the Cowan et al. method failed to produce any negativism.
Symbolic play and language comprehension in autistic children.
Examining early intentional communication in Down's syndrome and nonretarded children.
TLDR
Findings suggest that young retarded children at a two-word stage of linguistic development may be as flexible and diverse in their use of language during social interactions as are nonretarded children.
Current research on the syndrome of autism: introduction. The National Society for Autistic Children's definition of the syndrome of autism.
  • E. RitvoB. Freeman
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry
  • 1978
The measured intelligence of autistic children
TLDR
Initial IQ measurements of subnormal and autistic children analyzed for repeatability and also for relationship to other factors such as severity of illness and outcome of treatment found IQ estimates were significantly related to the severity of symptoms and effectively predicted performance at school.
National Society for Autistic Children definition of the syndrome of autism.
TLDR
It is helpful for the new student of autism to know the clinical and research basis from which the definition of the syndrome has been evolved, as well as the limits of applying the findings on such subsamples to other autistic children.
Severe impairments of social interaction and associated abnormalities in children: Epidemiology and classification
  • L. WingJ. Gould
  • Psychology
    Journal of autism and developmental disorders
  • 1979
TLDR
The prevalence, in children aged under 15, of severe impairments of social interaction, language abnormalities, and repetitive stereotyped behaviors was investigated in an area of London, and a system of classification based on quality ofsocial interaction was considered.
...
...