Does pre-testing promote better retention than post-testing?

@article{Latimier2019DoesPP,
  title={Does pre-testing promote better retention than post-testing?},
  author={Alice Latimier and Arnaud Riegert and Hugo Peyre and Son Thierry Ly and Roberto Casati and F. Ramus},
  journal={NPJ Science of Learning},
  year={2019},
  volume={4}
}
Compared with other learning strategies, retrieval practice seems to promote superior long-term retention. This has been found mostly in conditions where learners take tests after being exposed to learning content. However, a pre-testing effect has also been demonstrated, with promising results. This raises the question, for a given amount of time dedicated to retrieval practice, whether learners should be tested before or after an initial exposure to learning content. Our experiment directly… 
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