Does pneumoperitoneum cause bacterial translocation?
Although extensive research has been carried out on the respiratory and renal effects of intra-abdominal pressure increase, there is limited research with regard to its effects on bacterial translocation. The objective of this study was to discuss whether the high intra-abdominal pressure due to carbon dioxide (CO2) insufflation during laparoscopy leads to bacterial translocation. Eighteen male dogs, 7 of which constituted the control group, were used in the study. Two study groups, in which the intra-abdominal pressure was raised to 15 mm Hg and kept at that level for 30 and 120 minutes, respectively, were set. Blood gases and blood pressure values were observed throughout the experiments. Samples of peritoneal smear, portal vein blood, mesenteric lymph node, liver, spleen, and cecum were examined to detect bacterial translocation. Histopathological examinations of all samples were also carried out. No translocation was detected in the samples of peritoneal smear, portal blood, mesenteric lymph node, liver, or spleen, but in the samples of cecum, bacterial colonization for the second group (p<0.05) and for the third group (p<0.05) was significantly higher compared with the control group. There was a considerable difference between the second and third groups (p<0.05). The changes in the mesenteric lymph nodes were interpreted to be a result of bacterial drainage. Histopathological examination disclosed active changes in the mesenteric lymph nodes in all groups, but there was considerable sinus histiocytosis only in the third group. We conclude that the intraabdominal pressure of 15 mm Hg created by carbon dioxide insufflation does not lead to bacterial translocation but causes intraluminal bacterial colonization in the cecum after 30 minutes and after 2 hours.