Service or product diversification is a popular recommendation made to hospitals to increase profitability and reduce financial risk as they face a more hostile environment. This paper presents results from an empirical study of these claims. Using data from all California nonprofit hospitals, the study finds that diversification, regardless of whether it is related or unrelated to preexisting services, is not associated with either increased profitability or reduced financial risk. However, other variables that do have these effects are identified in the research. Future research should evaluate the effect of both the size of and the length of time since the initial diversifying investment on financial variables.