Does horseback riding therapy or therapist‐directed hippotherapy rehabilitate children with cerebral palsy?

@article{Sterba2007DoesHR,
  title={Does horseback riding therapy or therapist‐directed hippotherapy rehabilitate children with cerebral palsy?},
  author={John A. Sterba},
  journal={Developmental Medicine \& Child Neurology},
  year={2007},
  volume={49}
}
  • J. A. Sterba
  • Published 21 December 2006
  • Medicine, Psychology
  • Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology
Quantitative (not qualitative) studies were sought investigating whether horseback riding used as therapy improves gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Eleven published studies on instructor‐directed, recreational horseback riding therapy (HBRT) and licensed‐therapist‐directed hippotherapy were identified, reviewed, and summarized for research design, methodological quality, therapy regimen, internal/external validity, results, and authors’conclusions. Methodological… 
Therapeutic Effects of Horseback Riding Therapy on Gross Motor Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review
TLDR
Although the current level of evidence is weak, a synthesis found that children with spastic CP, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I–III, aged 4 years and above are likely to have significant improvements on gross motor function as a result of hippotherapy and THR.
THE EFFECTS OF HIPPOTHERAPY AND THERAPEUTIC HORSEBACK RIDING AS A REHABILITATION TECHNIQUE IN CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY : A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
TLDR
Hippotherapy and THR improve GMFM and posture in children with CP, however, with research lacking matched comparison studies, randomisation and small sample sizes, justification for the use of this technique is still limited.
Therapeutic Effects of Horseback Riding Interventions: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
TLDR
Most of the studies showed a trend toward a beneficial effect of therapeutic riding and hippotherapy on balance and gross motor function, and the meta-analysis showed improvement in both the Berg Balance Scale and the Gross Motor Function Measure.
Effects of horse riding simulator on sitting motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy.
TLDR
It was concluded that HRS is effective in improving the sitting motor function in children with spastic diplegia and the continuous provision of HRS in longer duration provide more benefits than the shorter duration.
The Short-term Effects of Hippotherapy and Therapeutic Horseback Riding on Spasticity in Children With Cerebral Palsy: A Meta-analysis
TLDR
This is the first meta-analysis to confirm that hippotherapy or THR can reduce lower-limb muscle spasticity in children with CP in the short term, but long-term effects on function still require further studies.
Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of equine assisted activities and therapies on gross motor outcome in children with cerebral palsy
TLDR
A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and observational studies of hippotherapy and therapeutic horseback riding for children with cerebral palsy found insufficient evidence to support the claim that long-term TR or HPOT provide a significant benefit to children with spastic CP.
Hippotherapy in Children with Developmental Delays: Physical Function and Psychological Benefits
Hippotherapy, or horse therapy, is an innovative form of physical therapy that involves the use of a horse as a therapeutic tool in order to effectively challenge a rider’s core muscles. The
Meta-Analysis on the Effect of Therapeutic Horseback Riding on Children with Developmental Disabilities and Neural Patients
TLDR
The effect size by outcome was observed to be the effective for children with developmental disabilities and neural patients and the horseback riding provided the positive effects of balance, muscle activities, ADL, equivalance, GMFM, gait, emotion.
Physical therapy treatments incorporating equine movement: a pilot study exploring interactions between children with cerebral palsy and the horse
TLDR
The increased synchronization between horse and the mounted participant suggests that physical therapy utilizing equine movement is a viable treatment tool to enhance functional mobility.
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References

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Major findings from a study of the therapeutic benefits of horseback riding for children with cerebral palsy indicate a need for further research and for finding or developing instruments that are able to capture and reveal meaningful changes in physical and psychosocial status.
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TLDR
It is concluded that THR may be beneficial for some children with spastic cerebral palsy because some of the children improved significantly in the GMFM E (walk/run/jump) score and the total score.
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
A statistically significant difference was found between the three test intervals with significant improvement occurring during the period of therapeutic riding, and clinical improvements were also noted in muscle tone and balance as evidenced by improved functional skills.
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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