Does extinction wield an axe or pruning shears? How interactions between phylogeny and ecology affect patterns of extinction

  title={Does extinction wield an axe or pruning shears? How interactions between phylogeny and ecology affect patterns of extinction},
  author={Walton A. Green and Gene Hunt and Scott L. Wing and William A. DiMichele},
Abstract Extinctions are caused by environmental and ecological change but are recognized and measured in the fossil record by the disappearance of clades or lineages. If the ecological preferences of lineages or taxa are weakly congruent with their phylogenetic relationships, even large ecological perturbations are unlikely to drive major clades extinct because the factors that eliminate some species are unlikely to affect close relatives with different ecological preferences. In contrast, if… 

Climate-driven extinctions shape the phylogenetic structure of temperate tree floras.

It is shown that late Cenozoic climate change induced phylogenetically selective regional extinction of northern temperate trees because of phylogenetic signal in cold tolerance, leading to significantly and substantially larger than random losses of phylogenetics diversity (PD).

Bias in phylogenetic measurements of extinction and a case study of end‐Permian tetrapods

Here, simulations are used to investigate the adequacy of measures of phylogenetic clustering of extinction when applied to phylogenies of fossil taxa while assuming a Brownian motion model of trait evolution, and expected biases under a variety of evolutionary and analytical scenarios are characterized.

Hierarchical controls on extinction selectivity across the diplobathrid crinoid phylogeny

A variety of biological and ecological controls on genus longevity in the global fossil record of diplobathrid crinoids are explored by analyzing the combined effects of species richness, habitat preference, body size, filtration fan density, and food size selectivity.

Phylogenetic signal in extinction selectivity in Devonian terebratulide brachiopods

Investigating global patterns of extinction selectivity in Devonian terebratulide brachiopods and comparing the results of taxonomic vs. phylogenetic approaches provides evidence for the phylogenetic conservatism of organismal and emergent traits, yet also the general phylogenetic independence of the relationship between range size and duration.

Macroevolution and climate change influence phylogenetic community assembly of North American hoofed mammals

The loss of numerically dominant nonhypsodont (putatively browsing and mixed feeding) clades and phylogenetically dispersed origination of less speciose clades following the mid Miocene climatic optimum led to an increase in phylogenetic evenness at the regional scale that is well explained by global climate changes.

Deep-Time Phylogenetic Clustering of Extinctions in an Evolutionarily Dynamic Clade (Early Jurassic Ammonites)

It was found that ammonite extinctions were significantly clumped phylogenetically, a pattern that prevailed throughout the 6.6 Myr-long early Pliensbachian interval, and such a phylogenetic conservatism did not alter – or may even have promoted – the evolutionary success of this major cephalopod clade.

The influence of abiotic processes, competition and predation on the community structure of rodents and shrews.

Both abiotic and biotic processes in fluenced different parameters of the community structure of rodents and shrews, however, despite s imilar life-history traits, theCommunity structure of local assemblages differed between rod ents andsh shrews.

The complex effects of mass extinctions on morphological disparity

It is found that morphological change over mass extinction is best studied by quantifying multiple aspects of morphospace occupation, and support for phylogenetic comparative methods away from the simulated Brownian motion toward Ornstein‐Uhlenbeck and Early Burst models is found.

Phylogenetic sampling affects evolutionary patterns of morphological disparity

Cladistic character matrices are routinely repurposed in analyses of morphological disparity. Unfortunately, the sampling of taxa and characters within such datasets reflects their intended

Life in the Aftermath of Mass Extinctions

  • P. Hull
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Current Biology
  • 2015



Extinction selectivity among lower taxa: gradational patterns and rarefaction error in extinction estimates

  • M. Mckinney
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 1995
Two echinoid data sets, of fossil and living taxa, indicate that species extinctions do not occur randomly within genera, and possible causes for the observed selectivity patterns are discussed.

Evidence for extinction selectivity throughout the marine invertebrate fossil record

A method for detecting random extinction is used to demonstrate that during both background and mass extinction times, extinction of marine invertebrate genera has been nonrandom with respect to species richness categories of genera.

Phylogenetic Conservatism of Extinctions in Marine Bivalves

When analyzed using a standardized taxonomy within a phylogenetic framework, extinction rates of marine bivalves estimated from the fossil record for the last ~200 million years show conservatism at multiple levels of evolutionary divergence, both within individual families and among related families.

Ecological basis of extinction risk in birds: habitat loss versus human persecution and introduced predators.

  • I. OwensP. Bennett
  • Environmental Science
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2000
The results demonstrate the importance of considering separately the multiple mechanisms that underlie contemporary patterns of extinction and reveal why it has previously proven so difficult to identify simple ecological correlates of overall extinction risk.

Lessons from the past: Evolutionary impacts of mass extinctions

  • D. Jablonski
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2001
Predictive purposes will involve factors such as differential extinction intensities among regions, clades, and functional groups, rules governing postextinction biotic interchanges and evolutionary dynamics, and analyses of the factors that cause taxa and evolutionary trends to continue unabated.

Phylogenetic Approaches to the Study of Extinction

This article illustrates with examples some of the ways that considering the evolutionary relationships among species—phylogenies— has helped the study of both past and present species extinction.

Adjusting global extinction rates to account for taxonomic susceptibility

An inverse correlation between extinction rate within substages and the evenness of diversity of major taxonomic groups is found, but further analyses indicate that low evenness itself does not cause high rates of extinction.

Phylogenetic biome conservatism on a global scale

It is shown that biome stasis at speciation has outweighed biome shifts by more than 25:1, by inferring ancestral biomes for an ecologically diverse sample of more than 11,000 plant species from around the Southern Hemisphere.

Present and Future Taxonomic Selectivity in Bird and Mammal Extinctions

We compared the distribution of historical bird and mammal species extinctions across genera and families with the distribution we would expect if these extinctions had occurred at random with

Taxonomic selectivity in amphibians: ignorance, geography or biology?

The overall distribution of threatened amphibians remained taxonomically non-random when species of unknown conservation status were omitted, and significant selectivity was detected not only at a global geographic scale but also in country- and site-specific data sets.