Does examination hell pay off ? A cost–benefit analysis of “ronin” and college education in Japan

@inproceedings{Ono2007DoesEH,
  title={Does examination hell pay off ? A cost–benefit analysis of “ronin” and college education in Japan},
  author={Hirosho Ono},
  year={2007}
}
College-bound students in Japan undergo a process of intense preparation known as examination hell. An extreme manifestation of examination hell is the ronin phenomenon. Typically thirty percent of students choose the ronin option under which they spend years in addition to high school preparing for the next year fs college entrance examinations. Using the mean scores of the entrance examinations as a measure of college quality, I find that college quality significantly improves the internal… CONTINUE READING
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