Does electoral fraud spread? The expansion of electoral manipulation in Russia

  title={Does electoral fraud spread? The expansion of electoral manipulation in Russia},
  author={Robert G. Moser and Allison Carll White},
  journal={Post-Soviet Affairs},
  pages={85 - 99}
Abstract In this paper, we argue that the occurrence of electoral manipulation in Russia has been driven, in part, by diffusion across neighboring raions through emulation, incentives, and networks. Presumably, in Putin’s Russia all local authorities have some incentives to deliver a high number of votes to United Russia, the “party of power”. However, the perceived pressure to deliver ever higher levels of support for Putin’s party arguably increases considerably if one’s raion is located in a… 
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