Does clean water matter? An updated meta-analysis of water supply and sanitation interventions and diarrhoeal diseases

  title={Does clean water matter? An updated meta-analysis of water supply and sanitation interventions and diarrhoeal diseases},
  author={Rebecca E. Engell and Stephen S. Lim},
  journal={The Lancet},

Interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhoea

There was substantial heterogeneity in the size of the effect estimates between individual studies, and the primary outcome in most studies was self‐reported diarrhoea, which is at high risk of bias due to the lack of blinding in over 80% of the included studies.

Household Water Quantity and Health: A Systematic Review

Overall results showed a positive association between water quantity and health outcomes, but the effect depended on how the water was used.

Estimating the impact of unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene on the global burden of disease: evolving and alternative methods

This work summarises evolving methods over previous GBD studies, and describes an alternative approach using population intervention modelling, emphasising the important role of GBD Studies and the need to ensure that policy on interventions such as water and sanitation be grounded on methods that are transparent, peer‐reviewed and widely accepted.

Review of biosand water filters

Results from the meta-evaluation illustrated that biosand water filters improve drinking water quality and reduce diarrhoeal disease, but there is no generally accepted field method for determining bios and water filter effectiveness that is useable in low-resource communities.

Does Poor Water Quality Cause Diarrheal Disease?

  • K. Levy
  • Medicine
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene
  • 2015
One might conclude from this evidence that poor water quality is not as much of a cause of diarrheal diseases as the authors previously assumed, but this conclusion would contradict a substantial body of evidence suggesting that interventions to improve water quality have consistently been associated with reduced incidence of diarrhea.

Assessing the Association between Thermotolerant Coliforms in Drinking Water and Diarrhea: An Analysis of Individual–Level Data from Multiple Studies

An association between fecally contaminated water and diarrheal disease is suggested and support for health-based targets for levels of TTC in drinking water and for interventions to improve drinking water quality to prevent diarrhea is provided.

The elusive effect of water and sanitation on the global burden of disease

  • W. Schmidt
  • Medicine
    Tropical medicine & international health : TM & IH
  • 2014
In the early days of development aid in the post-colonial era, water and sanitation were often not regarded as a health issue, but primarily provided with the aim of making people’s life easier and enable developmental activities.

The impact of prevention and control of infectious disease law on diarrhoea control: a 5‐year evaluation in multiple provinces in Vietnam

The findings of this study reveal the effectiveness of the LPCID in reducing diarrhoea incidence in Vietnam, and further studies should be conducted to better understanding the cost‐effectiveness, acceptability, and sustainability of each component of theLPCID.

On the Identification of Associations between Five World Health Organization Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Phenotypes and Six Predictors in Low and Middle-Income Countries

The results suggest that a higher priority may need to be given to improved sanitation than has been the case, and some predictors have very little explanatory power for predicting mortality and one has a counterintuitive effect on response.

Assessing the Health Impact of Water Quality Interventions in Low-Income Settings: Concerns Associated with Blinded Trials and the Need for Objective Outcomes

The results of blinded versus open trials of water quality interventions, evidence from a recent placebo-controlled trial in India suggesting that control households were put at risk from their participation, and alternatives to blinded trials that could resolve continued uncertainty about the magnitude of the protective effect of WASH interventions are summarized.