Does Regulation Affect Economic Outcomes? the Case of Dentistry*

  title={Does Regulation Affect Economic Outcomes? the Case of Dentistry*},
  author={Morris Michael Kleiner and Robert Thomas Kudrle},
  journal={The Journal of Law and Economics},
  pages={547 - 582}
This study examines the role of variations in occupational licensing policies in improving the quality of services provided to consumers and the effect of restrictive regulations on the prices of certain services and on the earnings of practitioners. Theory suggests that more restrictive licensing may raise prices and at the same time raise demand by reducing uncertainty about the quality of the services. This article uses unique data on the dental health of incoming Air Force personnel to… 
The Labor‐Market Effects of Occupational Licensing Laws in Nursing
It is found that licensing raised wages by 5 to 10 percent but there is no evidence that it reduced overall participation, and it is shown that licensure equalizes wages within the occupation with minority wages rising faster than nonminority wages.
The Demand for Healthcare Regulation: The Effect of Political Spending on Occupational Licensing Laws
The role of political contributions by healthcare professional interest groups in states' decisions to enact occupational licensing laws is considered, which shows increased spending by hospital interest groups increases the probability that a state allows NPs and PAs to practice with more autonomy.
Handbook of Health Economics
Relaxing Occupational Licensing Requirements: Analyzing Wages and Prices for a Medical Service
It is found that when nurse practitioners have more independence in their scope of practice, their wages are higher but physicians’ wages are lower, which suggests some substitution between the occupations.
Evidence is found that the amount of medical services delivered to the population drops: caps lead to a reduction of the number surgeries performed, the number of individuals treated inpatient or outpatient in community hospitals, and to an increase in the average length of hospitalization.
More Evidence on the Quality-Quantity Trade-off in Medical Care
The empirical results suggest that the regulation prohibiting physicians from prescribing drugs without a prior physical examination leads to an increase of approximately 0.2 in the expected monthly number of days lost to illness and 0.4 percent increase in mortality rates the equivalent of 33 more deaths per 1 million people.
Licensing One of the World’s Oldest Professions: Massage
In this paper, we analyze the development of occupational regulation of massage therapists in the United States as well as the effects of state licensing and certification on their earnings and
The Effect of Occupational Licensing on Consumer Welfare: Early Midwifery Laws and Maternal Mortality
Estimates provide the first econometric evidence of which to be aware on the relationship between licensure and consumer safety, and are directly relevant to ongoing policy debates both in the United States and in the developing world surrounding the merits of licensing midwives.
Regulating Work: Measuring the Scope and Burden of Occupational Licensure Among Low‐ and Moderate‐Income Occupations in the United States
Examination of occupational licensing laws in the United States for 102 low- and moderate-income occupations indicates that the licences studied require of aspiring workers, on average, $US209 in fees, one exam, and about nine months of education and training.


The Economics of Dental Licensing.
Abstract : With few exceptions, occupational licensing has been viewed by economists as a conspiracy of suppliers; they have focused attention almost exclusively on its costs, such as higher prices
Licensing Restrictions and the Cost of Dental Care
  • L. Shepard
  • Political Science, Economics
    The Journal of Law and Economics
  • 1978
FOR at least thirty years economists have argued that federal regulatory bodies further the interests of the industries they oversee rather than protect consumers. This contention has been embodied
Do Tougher Licensing Provisions Limit Occupational Entry? The Case of Dentistry
The effect of licensing as a mechanism to control entry into occupations has been a neglected area of both regulation and labor market research. This study examines the role of occupational licensing
Occupational Restrictions and the Quality of Service Received: Some Evidence*
Advocates of occupational licensing have been so successful with legislators that currently more than eighty occupations are licensed or restricted at some level of government. The majority of these
Occupational Licensing and the Public Interest
  • A. Maurizi
  • Economics
    Journal of Political Economy
  • 1974
Occupational licensing has been justifiable in the view of legislatures on the grounds that it protects the public interest; often, however, it is the producers of the good or service who present
Investment, Moral Hazard, and Occupational Licensing
I analyse occupational licensing as an input regulation that requires minimum levels of human capital investment by professionals. By raising professionals' training levels, licensing helps alleviate
Free for All?: Lessons from the RAND Health Insurance Experiment
In the most important health insurance study ever conducted researchers at the RAND Corporation devised all experiment to address two key questions in health care financing: how much more medical
The Impact of New Unionization on Wages and Working Conditions
This study investigates the impact of union organization on the wages and labor practices of establishments newly organized in the 1980s. It uses a research design in which establishments are
Legal "Cobwebs": A Recursive Model of the Market for New Lawyers
THE market for new law school graduates has undergone considerable change in recent years, with starting salaries increasing rapidly following the enormous increase in rates of the major New York
Occupational self-selection: a human capital approach to sex differences in occupational structure.
A rich and diverse literature exists concerning the distribution of labor incomes. One approach namely that of human capital concentrates on lifetime accumulation paths of "earnings capacity units"