BACKGROUND The influence of neuroinflammation on neuronal function and hippocampal atrophy in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) is still unclear. OBJECTIVES Here we investigated whether microglial activation measured by [11C]PK11195 PET is associated with neuronal function measured by cerebral glucose metabolic rate (rCMRGlc) using FDG-PET and hippocampal volume measurements. METHODS We enrolled 25 subjects (9 PDD, 8 AD, and 8 controls) who underwent PET scans with [11C](R)PK11195, [18F]FDG, and volumetric MRI scanning. RESULTS SPM correlation analysis in AD and PDD showed a negative correlation between hippocampal volume and microglial activation within hippocampus or parahippocampus and with cortical and subcortical areas of projections from hippocampus, while there was a positive correlation between rCMRGlc in cortical and subcortical areas of projections from hippocampus and hippocampal volume. Hippocampal volume was significantly reduced in AD compared to controls but not in PDD. CONCLUSIONS These findings indicate that microglial activation inversely correlated with hippocampal volume and hippocampal rCMRGlc in neurodegenerative diseases with dementia, providing further evidence for the central role of microglial activation in neurodegenerative diseases.