Does Choice Mean Freedom and Well‐Being?

  title={Does Choice Mean Freedom and Well‐Being?},
  author={Hazel Rose Markus and Barry Schwartz},
  journal={Journal of Consumer Research},
Americans live in a political, social, and historical context that values personal freedom and choice above all else, an emphasis that has been amplified by contemporary psychology. However, this article reviews research that shows that in non-Western cultures and among working-class Westerners, freedom and choice do not have the meaning or importance they do for the university-educated people who have been the subjects of almost all research on this topic. We cannot assume that choice, as… 
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5 studies test the hypotheses that models of agency prevalent in working- class (WK) contexts reflect a normative preference for similarity to others, whereas models prevalent in middle-class (MD) contexts reflects a preference for difference from others.
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The neglected 95%: why American psychology needs to become less American.
  • J. Arnett
  • Psychology
    The American psychologist
  • 2008
It is proposed that psychological research published in APA journals focuses too narrowly on Americans, which results in an understanding of psychology that is incomplete and does not adequately represent humanity.
Rethinking the value of choice: a cultural perspective on intrinsic motivation.
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