Does CDP-choline modulate phospholipase activities after transient forebrain ischemia?

@article{Rao2001DoesCM,
  title={Does CDP-choline modulate phospholipase activities after transient forebrain ischemia?},
  author={Adibhatla Muralikrishna Rao and James Franklin Hatcher and Robert J. Dempsey},
  journal={Brain Research},
  year={2001},
  volume={893},
  pages={268-272}
}

Effects of Citicoline on Phospholipid and Glutathione Levels in Transient Cerebral Ischemia

TLDR
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Citicoline decreases phospholipase A2 stimulation and hydroxyl radical generation in transient cerebral ischemia

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Phospholipase A2, hydroxyl radicals, and lipid peroxidation in transient cerebral ischemia.

TLDR
Results suggest that citicoline provides neuroprotection by attenuating the stimulation of PLA2, the predominant isoform in membrane and mitochondria.

Phospholipase A 2 , Hydroxyl Radicals , and Lipid Peroxidation in Transient Cerebral Ischemia

TLDR
The results suggest that citicoline provides neuroprotection by attenuating the stimulation of PLA2, the predominant isoform in membrane and mitochondria.

Citicoline: neuroprotective mechanisms 
in cerebral ischemia

TLDR
The studies in transient cerebral ischemia suggest that citicoline might enhance reconstruction of PtdCho and sphingomyelin, but could act by inhibiting the destructive processes (activation of phospholipases), and a singular unifying unifying mechanism has been hypothesized.

Citicoline Inhibits MAP Kinase Signalling Pathways after Focal Cerebral Ischaemia

TLDR
The effects of CDP-choline on intracellular mechanisms of signal transduction, suggests that this molecule may play a key role in recovery after ischaemic stroke.

Cytidine 5′-Diphosphocholine (CDP-Choline) in Stroke and Other CNS Disorders

TLDR
The beneficial effects of CDP-choline may result by counteracting TNF-α and/or IL-1 mediated events, integrating cytokine biology and lipid metabolism, and can be considered as one of the agents in multi-drug treatment of stroke.

CDP-choline is not protective in the SOD1-G93A mouse model of ALS

TLDR
The data from the transgenic mouse model do not strongly support further clinical validation of CDP-choline for the treatment of ALS and no differences in motor neuron survival, astrocytosis or myelination were detected by histological analyses.

Inhibitors of Brain Phospholipase A2 Activity: Their Neuropharmacological Effects and Therapeutic Importance for the Treatment of Neurologic Disorders

The phospholipase A2 family includes secretory phospholipase A2, cytosolic phospholipase A2, plasmalogen-selective phospholipase A2, and calcium-independent phospholipase A2. It is generally thought

Citicoline: Mechanisms and Stroke Clinical Trials

TLDR
Citicoline neuroprotection may include: preserving cardiolipin and sphingomyelin; preserving arachidonic acid content of PtdCho and phosphatidylethanolamine; partially restoring PTDCho levels; and stimulating glutathione synthesis and glutathion reductase activity.

References

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Lipid Alterations in Transient Forebrain Ischemia

TLDR
Multiple beneficial effects of CDP‐choline are suggested, including stabilizing the cell membrane by restoring PtdCho and sphingomyelin (prominent components of outer cellmembrane), attenuating the release of ArAc and limiting its oxidative metabolism, and restoring cardiolipin levels.

CDP‐choline: Neuroprotection in transient forebrain ischemia of gerbils

TLDR
CDP‐choline significantly attenuated the blood‐brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction after ischemia with 6‐hr reperfusion, and considerably reduced the increase of AA in FFA and leukotriene C4 (LTC4) synthesis at 1 day.

Changes in lipid metabolites and enzymes in rat brain due to ischemia and recirculation.

TLDR
The results suggest that there may be another pathway for the accumulation of free fatty acids in addition to phospholipase C coupled to di- and monoacylglycerol lipase together with phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate during ischemic insult.

Changes in major phospholipids of mitochondria during postischemic reperfusion in rat brain.

TLDR
The results suggest that phospholipid metabolism in mitochondrial membranes is an important factor bearing on the integrity of energy metabolism during postischemic reperfusion.

Characterization of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity in gerbil brain: enhanced activities of cytosolic, mitochondrial, and microsomal forms after ischemia and reperfusion

TLDR
The subcellular distribution ofPLA2 activity in gerbil brain was characterized and how PLA2 activity was altered by ischemia and reperfusion was evaluated.

Phospholipase A2 and Its Role in Brain Tissue

TLDR
This review outlines the current knowledge of the PLA2 found in the central nervous system and attempts to define the role of PLA2 during both physiologic and pathologic conditions.

Brain Cytosolic Phospholipase A2: Localization, Role, and Involvement in Neurological Diseases

TLDR
Activity and immunoreactivity of cPLA2 are markedly increased in ischemia, Alzheimer’s disease, and kainic acid neurotoxicity, and recent studies on the role of this enzyme in brain tissue suggest that c PLA2 may be involved in synaptic plasticity, generation of second messengers, axon regeneration, and neurodegeneration.

Changes of polyphosphoinositides, lysophospholipid, and free fatty acids in transient cerebral ischemia of rat brain.

TLDR
Stearic acid and arachidonic acid contained in DG increased during 5 min of ischemia, whereas saturated fatty acids increased in LPC, and the importance of the changes of PIP, PIP2, and LPC is also discussed.