Does Biology Need an Organism Concept?

@article{Pepper2008DoesBN,
  title={Does Biology Need an Organism Concept?},
  author={John W. Pepper and Matthew D. Herron},
  journal={Biological Reviews},
  year={2008},
  volume={83}
}
Among biologists, there is no general agreement on exactly what entities qualify as ‘organisms’. Instead, there are multiple competing organism concepts and definitions. While some authors think this is a problem that should be corrected, others have suggested that biology does not actually need an organism concept. We argue that the organism concept is central to biology and should not be abandoned. Both organism concepts and operational definitions are useful. We review criteria used for… 

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