Do you need a flash' to form a flashbulb memory?

@article{Weaver1993DoYN,
  title={Do you need a flash' to form a flashbulb memory?},
  author={Charles A. Weaver},
  journal={Journal of Experimental Psychology: General},
  year={1993},
  volume={122},
  pages={39-46}
}
  • C. A. Weaver
  • Published 1 March 1993
  • Psychology
  • Journal of Experimental Psychology: General
On January 16, 1991, students encoded an «ordinary event» as part of a demonstration on flashbulb memories and completed a questionnaire modeled after Christianson (1989). By coincidence, the bombing of Iraq began the same day. A similar questionnaire asking about memory for the bombing was given to students 2 days later. In April 1991 and January 1992, both questionnaires were again completed, allowing comparisons of the students' memories for the 2 events. Although few differences appeared in… 
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It was concluded that the loss of information during one year contradicts the notion that flashbulb memories persist in absolute accuracy over time, as has been claimed in previous studies.
Clarifying flashbulb memory concept: Comment on McCloskey, Wible, and Cohen (1988).
A primary purpose of studies of flashbulb memories has been to explain to explain tha considerable variation in memory quality. Because the flashbulb metaphor is potentially misleading, the more
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