Do we know regulatory barriers when we see them? An exploration using zoning and development indicators

  title={Do we know regulatory barriers when we see them? An exploration using zoning and development indicators},
  author={Gerrit Knaap and Stuart Meck and Terry Moore and Robert K. Parker},
  journal={Housing Policy Debate},
  pages={711 - 749}
Abstract Many studies have demonstrated that zoning by local governments can have adverse effects on housing production and, consequently, on housing affordability. Most of these studies, however, use coarse measures of zoning regulations and thus provide little information about the nature and patterns of zoning itself. As a result, these studies offer little information that is useful in identifying when and where regulatory barriers exist. Gerrit‐Jan Knaap is executive director of the… 

Changing Residential Land Use Regulations to Address High Housing Prices

  • C. J. Gabbe
  • Economics
    Journal of the American Planning Association
  • 2019
Abstract Problem, research strategy, and findings: In the past 3 decades, a series of presidential administrations—and the APA—have recommended that cities update their zoning codes to enable more

Do State Affordable Housing Appeals Systems Backfire? A Natural Experiment

Abstract Several U.S. states have supplemented traditional judicial review of local land-use regulation with a state affordable housing appeals system (SAHAS). Empirical evidence indicates that a

Planning, government charges, and the costs of land and housing

This research seeks to identify the range of government and planning related costs that arise through the residential development process, and quantify their relative weight as a proportion of the

Participants in Local Zoning for Multifamily Housing Development and Decision Delay: Transaction Cost and Hierarchical Governance

Local zoning decisions for multifamily housing development are understood as an outcome of interactions among multiple participants in the decision-making processes, including state and local

Residential Development and Hierarchical Governance: Multifamily Housing and Multilevel Analysis

This study investigates factors that influence multifamily housing zoning from a hierarchical governance perspective. Local zoning is a product of interactive processes among various stakeholders and

Spluma, Zoning and Effective Land Use Management in South Africa

For the first time, South Africa has a single national piece of legislation, the Spatial Planning and Land Use Management Act, 2013, that creates an overarching framework for spatial planning, policy

Drivers of housing (un)affordability in the advanced economies: a review and new evidence

Housing affordability has been decreasing worldwide, particularly in the advanced economies, in recent decades. A fast-growing body of literature on housing affordability speaks to the global nature

Planning for Diverse and Affordable Housing Supply? A Survey of 200 Australian Planning Schemes

This paper examines how local plans regulate residential development in Australia, where there has been intense concern over housing supply and affordability. Drawing on repeat surveys of the content

Planning for Inclusionary Housing in New and Renewing Communities

This chapter introduces and extends the current state of knowledge on approaches to planning for inclusionary housing, outlining a range of mandatory and voluntary mechanisms suited to different



The Effects of Land-Use Regulation on the Price of Housing: What Do We Know? What Can We Learn?

Effective governance of residential development and housing markets poses difficult challenges for land regulators. In theory, excessive land restrictions limit the buildable supply, tilting

State Land Use Planning and Inclusionary Zoning: Evidence from Oregon

The resurgence of state land use planning in the 1980s has again stimulated debate over the virtues of centralized land use control. Unfor tunately, the debate rages with little empirical evidence on

From Traditional to Reformed: A Review of the Land Use Regulations in the Nation’s 50 Largest Metropolitan Areas

Local land use regulations aid in the definition of the character of towns, cities, counties, and entire regions. Infrastructure control, zoning, urban containment, comprehensive plans, permit caps,

Housing Prices, Externalities, and Regulation in U.S. Metropolitan Areas

Housing prices vary widely between U.S. markets. The purpose of this study is to analyze determinants of housing prices, with particular focus on the effects of regulations in land and housing

Local Land Use Regulation and the Chain of Exclusion

Abstract The study reported in this article tested connections between five land use controls and the racial composition of the communities that use them. A survey of localities in the 25 largest


This Symposium Article is brought to you for free and open access by the Law Review & Student Publications at Digital Commons @ Western New England University School of Law. It has been accepted for

The Effects of Land-Use Constraints on Housing Prices

This paper estimates the direct and spillover effects of zoning controls along with other growth restrictions on housing prices. Theory leads us to expect a positive effect of land-use restrictions

Have Housing Prices Risen Faster in Portland Than Elsewhere?

Abstract The Portland, OR, region has had a strong urban growth boundary (UGB) since 1979, so observers have focused on the relationship between its UGB and home prices, which rose sharply there

Proximity, Neighbourhood and the Efficacy of Exclusion

This paper uses data on over 2800 house sales in Jacksonville, Florida, to estimate the impact of neighbourhood characteristics on house prices. A GIS progamme is used to develop neighbourhood