1. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of various diuretics on intestinal oxalate transport. Transmural oxalate fluxes were measured across isolated, short-circuited tissue segments removed from rabbits and placed in Ussing chambers. 2. The net absorptive flux of oxalate across the distal colon was significantly reduced in the presence of trichlormethiazide at 10(-4) mol/l. In contrast, this diuretic had no effect on oxalate transport in the other intestinal segments examined. Several of the thiazide diuretics tested had some inhibitory effect on colonic oxalate absorption, but at higher concentrations of 10(-3) mol/l or 10(-2) mol/l. 3. We conclude that the previously reported hypooxaluric effects of hydrochlorothiazide and chlorthalidone are most likely not the result of an exclusive or primary effect on intestinal oxalate transport. It is suggested that the reduction in colonic oxalate absorption that was observed with the thiazides probably involves the transport system responsible for oxalate efflux across the basolateral membrane of the colonocyte.