Do sticklebacks cooperate repeatedly in reciprocal pairs?

@article{Milinski2004DoSC,
  title={Do sticklebacks cooperate repeatedly in reciprocal pairs?},
  author={Manfred Milinski and Dominik Pfluger and David K{\"u}lling and Rolf Kettler},
  journal={Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology},
  year={2004},
  volume={27},
  pages={17-21}
}
SummaryIn a shoal of four sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) individual fish had partners with whom they repeatedly performed pairwise predator inspection visits. In six different trials, we found two reciprocal pairs per trial significantly more often than would be expected by chance. These results provide further evidence for a TIT FOR TAT like cooperation strategy in sticklebacks. 
Tit for Tat: sticklebacks
  • Environmental Science
  • 2005
Individual three-spined sticklebacks {Gasterosteus aculeatus) moved closer to a predatory trout when a "cooperator" stickleback, which the test fish could see through a one-way mirror, swam up to the
Individual Behavioural Strategies Associated with Predator Inspection in Minnow Shoals
TLDR
When confronted with a live pike, Esox lucius, European minnows, Phoxinus phoxinus, showing individual differences in rate of predator inspection, fish with high inspection rates were bolder, skittered more frequently and fed more persistently than fish with low inspection rates.
Predator inspection behaviour in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus): body size, local predation pressure and cooperation
TLDR
It is confirmed that levels of predator inspection are both population- and situation-dependent, suggesting a trade-off in the potential costs and benefits of this behaviour.
Association patterns and shoal fidelity in the three–spined stickleback
  • A. Ward, M. Botham, J. Krause
  • Environmental Science
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 2002
TLDR
Stable partner associations between fishes were observed which might provide the basis for shoal fidelity via social networks and suggest the potential for the kinds of inter–individual association patterns assumed by models of predator inspection and ‘tit–for–tat’ behaviours in free–ranging fishes.
Do female rainbowfish (Melanotaenia spp.) prefer to shoal with familiar individuals under predation pressure?
  • Culum Brown
  • Environmental Science
    Journal of Ethology
  • 2002
TLDR
It is suggested that, in predator sympatric populations, the benefits of shoaling with familiar individuals are such that it always pays to stay close to familiar individuals even when the probability of predator attack is remote.
Hunger-dependent predator inspection and foraging behaviours in the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) under predation risk
TLDR
The results indicate that the hungrier fish in a shoal are more willing to take greater risks to inspect a potential threat at a distance, compared with their well-fed shoal mates, and suggest that they may gain a foraging benefit in doing so.
Learned recognition of conspecifics by fishes
The study of partner-choice decisions of individual fish is a good way in which insights into patterns of school structure or territorial assemblages can be gained. Most initial work has focused on
No evidence for individual recognition in threespine or ninespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus or Pungitius pungitius)
TLDR
This study asked whether sticklebacks were capable of learning to recognize individual conspecifics, and provided no evidence for individual recognition, and speculated that the fission–fusion structure of their social groups may not favour a capacity forindividual recognition.
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