author={Juha Karvanen and Santtu Tikka and Antti Hyttinen},
  pages={111 - 119}
Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text. Epidemiologic evidence is based on multiple data sources including clinical trials, cohort studies, surveys, registries, and expert opinions. Merging information from different sources opens up new possibilities for the estimation of causal effects. We show how causal effects can be identified and estimated by combining experiments and observations in real and realistic scenarios. As a new tool, we present do-search, a recently developed… 

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