Do people with idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields display physiological effects when exposed to electromagnetic fields? A systematic review of provocation studies

@article{Rubin2011DoPW,
  title={Do people with idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields display physiological effects when exposed to electromagnetic fields? A systematic review of provocation studies},
  author={G James Rubin and Lena Hillert and Rosa Nieto-Hernandez and Eric van Rongen and Gunnhild Oftedal},
  journal={Bioelectromagnetics},
  year={2011},
  volume={32}
}
Idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI‐EMF) is a controversial illness in which people report symptoms that they believe are triggered by exposure to EMF. Double‐blind experiments have found no association between the presence of EMF and self‐reported outcomes in people with IEI‐EMF. No systematic review has assessed whether EMF exposure triggers physiological or cognitive changes in this group. Using a systematic literature search, we identified 29… 

Methodological limitations in experimental studies on symptom development in individuals with idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF) – a systematic review

Evaluated methodological limitations in experimental studies on symptom development in IEI-EMF individuals that might have fostered false positive or false negative results indicated that an effect of exposure is unlikely and researchers are encouraged to achieve a high credibility of the results by minimizing sources of bias and imprecision.

Symptom Presentation in Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance With Attribution to Electromagnetic Fields: Evidence for a Nocebo Effect Based on Data Re-Analyzed From Two Previous Provocation Studies

A nocebo effect provides a reasonable explanation for the presence of symptoms in IEI-EMF and control participants.

Descriptive self-reporting survey of people with idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF): similarities and comparisons with previous studies

ContextIn France, cases of people self-reporting symptoms due to electromagnetic fields (EMF) or idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF) have emerged over

Physiological changes and symptoms associated with short-term exposure to electromagnetic fields: a randomized crossover provocation study

Background The biological association between electromagnetic fields (EMF) and idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to EMF (IEI-EMF) has not been established. To assess the physiological

Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance Attributed to Electromagnetic Fields: A Content Analysis of British Newspaper Reports

Widespread poor reporting of IEI-EMF in the UK media has the potential for to encourage more people to misattribute their symptoms to electromagnetic fields and scientists should remain engaged with the media to counteract this effect.

Does electromagnetic hypersensitivity originate from nocebo responses? Indications from a qualitative study

Overall, symptoms appear before subjects start questioning effects of EMF on their health, which is not consistent with the hypothesis that IEI-EMF originates from nocebo responses to perceived EMF exposure, however, such responses might occur at the sixth stage of the process, potentially reinforcing the attribution.

Idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF): A systematic review of identifying criteria

Considerable heterogeneity exists in the criteria used by the researchers to identify IEI-EMF, due to explicit differences in their conceptual frameworks, and further work is required to produce consensus criteria not only for research purposes but also for use in clinical practice.
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