Do floral syndromes predict specialization in plant pollination systems? An experimental test in an “ornithophilous” African Protea

@article{Hargreaves2004DoFS,
  title={Do floral syndromes predict specialization in plant pollination systems? An experimental test in an “ornithophilous” African Protea},
  author={Anna L. Hargreaves and Steven D. Johnson and Erica Nol},
  journal={Oecologia},
  year={2004},
  volume={140},
  pages={295-301}
}
We investigated whether the “ornithophilous” floral syndrome exhibited in an African sugarbush, Protea roupelliae  (Proteaceae), reflects ecological specialization for bird-pollination. A breeding system experiment established that the species is self-compatible, but dependent on visits by pollinators for seed set. The cup-shaped inflorescences were visited by a wide range of insect and bird species; however inflorescences from which birds, but not insects, were excluded by wire cages set few… 
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Colour, scent and nectar characteristics differ from insect-pollinated Satyrium species and are consistent with those expected for bird- pollinated flowers, and may contribute to lack of visitation by other potential long-tongued pollinators.
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Pollination syndromes in a specialised plant-pollinator interaction: does floral morphology predict pollinators in Calceolaria?
TLDR
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TLDR
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Evidence for beetle pollination in the African grassland sugarbushes (Protea: Proteaceae)
TLDR
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The relative contributions of insect and bird pollinators to outcrossing in an African Protea (Proteaceae).
TLDR
Since outcrossing rates were not reduced when birds were excluded, it is infer that insects are effective agents of cross pollination in P. caffra, which helps to explain the evolution of traits associated with insect pollination, such as fruity floral scent, in this species.
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