Do developmental differences in mental toughness exist between specialized and invested Australian footballers

@article{Gucciardi2009DoDD,
  title={Do developmental differences in mental toughness exist between specialized and invested Australian footballers},
  author={Daniel F. Gucciardi},
  journal={Personality and Individual Differences},
  year={2009},
  volume={47},
  pages={985-989}
}
  • D. Gucciardi
  • Published 1 December 2009
  • Psychology
  • Personality and Individual Differences
Abstract Using a cross-sectional design, the primary purpose of the present study was to examine developmental differences in mental toughness between specialized and invested Australian footballers. A secondary purpose was to examine the psychometric properties of the Australian football Mental Toughness Inventory (AfMTI; Gucciardi, Gordon, & Dimmock, 2009a ) with a sample of youth footballers. Participants were 350 footballers aged between 13 and 18 (M = 15.88; SD = 1.71); 144 (Mage = 14.06… Expand
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