To evaluate the impact of actions taken in Italy since 1998 to improve vaccination coverage, a national EPI-survey was performed in 2003. Overall, 4602 children aged 12-24 months participated in the study; coverage was calculated for three doses of DT, polio, HBV, pertussis, and Hib, and for one dose of MMR/measles vaccine for children > or =16 months of age. Since 1998, when the last national survey was conducted, DT, polio, and HBV coverage have remained consistently high (95%), while pertussis, Hib, and MMR/measles significantly increased. Pertussis coverage reached the 95% target, and Hib is close to target (87%). Improving MMR coverage (77%), however, remains a national priority.