Do carotenoids serve as transmembrane radical channels?

@article{Johnson2009DoCS,
  title={Do carotenoids serve as transmembrane radical channels?},
  author={JAMES D. Johnson},
  journal={Free radical biology \& medicine},
  year={2009},
  volume={47 3},
  pages={
          321-3
        }
}

Mechanistic aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis.

Carotenoids represent a large class of terpenoids characterized by an extensively conjugated polyene chain that carries out light independent functions in scavenging peroxyl radicals and preventing oxidative damage particularly against singlet oxygen (1O2).

Interactions of dietary carotenoids with activated (singlet) oxygen and free radicals: potential effects for human health.

These reactions are related to CAR redox potentials with LYC being the lowest (most easily oxidised) allowing LYC to reduce/repair all other CAR radical cations and LYC 'sacrificed' where mixtures of CARs are present in oxidative environments.

Pro-oxidant Actions of Carotenoids in Triggering Apoptosis of Cancer Cells: A Review of Emerging Evidence

This review discusses possible mechanisms of carotenoid-triggered ROS production in cancer cells, the activation of pro-apoptotic signaling by ROS, and apoptotic cell death, and synergistic actions ofcarotenoids with ROS-inducing anti-cancer drugs are discussed, and research gaps are suggested.

Carotenoid accumulation affects redox status, starch metabolism, and flavonoid/anthocyanin accumulation in citrus

In citrus, altered carotenoid accumulation resulted in dramatic effects on metabolic processes involved in redox modification, starch degradation, and flavonoid/anthocyanin biosynthesis.

Expression of a Chromoplast-Specific Lycopene β-Cyclase Gene (CYC-B) Is Implicated in Carotenoid Accumulation and Coloration in the Loquat

Direct evidences that CYC-B gene is involved in carotenoid accumulation and coloration in the loquat are provided.

A cytochrome P450 superfamily gene, IbCYP82D47, increases carotenoid contents in transgenic sweet potato.

Genome-wide identification and expression profiling of the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD) gene family in Brassica napus L

Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD), a key enzyme in carotenoid metabolism, cleaves carotenoids to form apo-carotenoids, which play a major role in plant growth and stress responses. CCD genes had

Plant Antioxidants Affect Human and Gut Health, and Their Biosynthesis Is Influenced by Environment and Reactive Oxygen Species

Many environmental stresses cause an increase in reactive oxygen species in plants and alter their nutritional value. Plants respond to many stresses by producing increased amounts of compounds with

Cloning and Prokaryotic Expression of Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenases from Mulberry (Morus notabilis)

In this paper, six CCD genes were obtained from Morus notabilis by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and they were classified into three subgroups based on gene structures and phylogenetic analysis.

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