Do We Need to Consider Electrons' Kinetic Effects to Properly Model a Planetary Magnetosphere: The Case of Mercury

@article{Lapenta2022DoWN,
  title={Do We Need to Consider Electrons' Kinetic Effects to Properly Model a Planetary Magnetosphere: The Case of Mercury},
  author={Giovanni Lapenta and David Schriver and Raymond J. Walker and Jean Berchem and Mostafa El Alaoui and Nicole F. Echterling and Pavel M. Tr{\'a}vn{\'i}cek},
  journal={Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics},
  year={2022},
  volume={127}
}
The magnetosphere of Mercury is studied using an implicit full particle‐in‐cell simulation (PIC). We use a hybrid simulation where ions are full particles and electrons are considered as a fluid to start a PIC simulation where electrons are also particles and follow their distribution function. This approach allows us to estimate the changes introduced by the electron kinetic physics. We find that the overall macroscopic state of the magnetosphere of Mercury is little affected, but several… 

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