Do Negative Messages Work?

  title={Do Negative Messages Work?},
  author={Kim Fridkin and Patrick J. Kenney},
  journal={American Politics Research},
  pages={570 - 605}
We examine the effectiveness of negative campaigning. Specifically, we focus on the question, Do negative campaign messages alter citizens’ evaluations of competing candidates? We rely on a research design that replicates the campaign environment for nearly 100 Senate elections involving thousands of voters. Furthermore, we utilize a theoretical framework that sheds light on how negative information influences people’s social judgments. In general, the results suggest that negative messages… 

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