Do Defaults Save Lives?

  title={Do Defaults Save Lives?},
  author={Eric J. Johnson and Daniel G. Goldstein},
  pages={1338 - 1339}
The article discusses how should policy-makers choose defaults regarding organ donors. First, consider that every policy must have a no-action default, and defaults impose physical, cognitive, and, in the case of donation, emotional costs on those who must change their status. Second, note that defaults can lead to two kinds of misclassification, willing donors who are not identified or people who become donors against their wishes. Changes in defaults could increase donations in the United… 
Recommendations Implicit in Policy Defaults
Examining two domains—being an organ donor and saving for retirement—where default effects occur and have important implications indicates that policymakers' attitudes can be revealed through their choice of default, and people perceive the default as indicating the recommended course of action.
Defaults and Donation Decisions
Research shows that opt-in countries have much higher rates of apparent agreement with donation, and a statistically significant higher rate of donations, even with appropriate statistical controls, and compares countries with opt- in (explicit consent) and opt-out (presumed consent) defaults.
Does changing defaults save lives? Effects of presumed consent organ donation policies
Evidence indicates that rates of consent, donation, and transplantation are higher under presumed consent policies than under explicit consent policies, and policymakers must balance a number of other considerations to ensure that shifting to a presumed consent system will boost donation and transplation rates.
Does Presumed Consent Save Lives? Evidence from Europe.
  • Z. Ugur
  • Medicine, Political Science
    Health economics
  • 2015
It is found that presumed consent countries have 28% to 32% higher cadaveric donation and 27% to 31% higher kidney transplant rates in comparison to informed consent countries, after accounting for potential confounding factors.
Nudging to donate organs: do what you like or like what we do?
It is argued that the as-judged-by-themselves principle may hold only in two of these cases and ways to expand nationwide surveys to identify the actual reasons for why defaults work are recommended.
Comparing the effects of defaults in organ donation systems.
The Impact of Default Rules on Economic Behavior , With Primary Attention to Organ Donations
This paper discusses the impact of default rules on economic behavior. We primarily focus on the effect of legislation on cadaveric organ donations. We show how the involvement of the family in the
Warning: You are about to be nudged
Presenting a default option is known to influence important decisions. That includes decisions regarding advance medical directives, documents people prepare to convey which medical treatments they
Changing defaults in biobank research could save lives too
It is concluded that instead of presuming that individuals do not wish to contribute to the advancement of healthcare through biobank research on previously taken samples, ethics committees should presume that they do.
Putting Public Policy Defaults to the Test: The Case of Organ Donor Registration
ABSTRACT There is growing interest within public management in using governance tools to influence citizens’ behavior, including changing “choice architecture” by manipulating defaults. This article


AMA considers whether to pay for donation of organs
  • D. Josefson
  • Political Science, Medicine
    BMJ : British Medical Journal
  • 2002
In a major and contentious policy shift, the American Medical Association (AMA) has voted to encourage studies that would determine whether financial incentives could increase the pool of cadaveric
How to improve organ donation: results of the ISHLT/FACT poll.
  • M. Oz, A. Kherani, James B. Young
  • Medicine
    The Journal of heart and lung transplantation : the official publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation
  • 2003
Who Are the Donors in Organ Donation? The Family's Perspective in Mandated Choice
The potential to eliminate the family's role in donation is the focus of efforts such as mandated choice for organ donation, which proposes to record the wishes of as many persons as possible about donation of their own organs and to retrieve this information in the event of death with donation potential.
An ethically defensible market in organs
The American Medical Association has just voted to encourage studies that would determine whether financial incentives would increase the pool of donor organs from cadavers, outlining probably the only circumstances in which a market in donor organs could be achieved ethically and in a way that minimised the dangers of such a scheme.
Psychosocial profile in favor of organ donation.
Strategies for cadaveric organ procurement. Mandated choice and presumed consent. Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs, American Medical Association.
Even though each cadaveric organ donor can often supply multiple organs for transplantation, many patients still die before a suitable organ becomes available, and waiting lists for donor organs are increasingly crowded.
Status quo bias in decision making
Most real decisions, unlike those of economics texts, have a status quo alternative—that is, doing nothing or maintaining one's current or previous decision. A series of decision-making experiments
Reference Points and Omission Bias
Abstract Subjects were asked to evaluate the choice of options leading to known outcomes, or to say how they would feel about a chance outcome, in hypothetical decisions. We independently manipulated
Regulation for Conservatives: Behavioral Economics and the Case for 'Asymmetric Paternalism'
Regulation by the state can take a variety of forms. Some regulations are aimed entirely at redistribution, such as when we tax the rich and give to the poor. Other regulations seek to counteract