Do Defaults Save Lives?

@article{Johnson2003DoDS,
  title={Do Defaults Save Lives?},
  author={Eric J. Johnson and Daniel G. Goldstein},
  journal={Science},
  year={2003},
  volume={302},
  pages={1338 - 1339}
}
The article discusses how should policy-makers choose defaults regarding organ donors. First, consider that every policy must have a no-action default, and defaults impose physical, cognitive, and, in the case of donation, emotional costs on those who must change their status. Second, note that defaults can lead to two kinds of misclassification, willing donors who are not identified or people who become donors against their wishes. Changes in defaults could increase donations in the United… 
Recommendations Implicit in Policy Defaults
TLDR
Examining two domains—being an organ donor and saving for retirement—where default effects occur and have important implications indicates that policymakers' attitudes can be revealed through their choice of default, and people perceive the default as indicating the recommended course of action.
Defaults and Donation Decisions
TLDR
Research shows that opt-in countries have much higher rates of apparent agreement with donation, and a statistically significant higher rate of donations, even with appropriate statistical controls, and compares countries with opt- in (explicit consent) and opt-out (presumed consent) defaults.
Does changing defaults save lives? Effects of presumed consent organ donation policies
TLDR
Evidence indicates that rates of consent, donation, and transplantation are higher under presumed consent policies than under explicit consent policies, and policymakers must balance a number of other considerations to ensure that shifting to a presumed consent system will boost donation and transplation rates.
Does Presumed Consent Save Lives? Evidence from Europe.
  • Z. Ugur
  • Medicine, Political Science
    Health economics
  • 2015
TLDR
It is found that presumed consent countries have 28% to 32% higher cadaveric donation and 27% to 31% higher kidney transplant rates in comparison to informed consent countries, after accounting for potential confounding factors.
Nudging to donate organs: do what you like or like what we do?
TLDR
It is argued that the as-judged-by-themselves principle may hold only in two of these cases and ways to expand nationwide surveys to identify the actual reasons for why defaults work are recommended.
Comparing the effects of defaults in organ donation systems.
The Impact of Default Rules on Economic Behavior , With Primary Attention to Organ Donations
This paper discusses the impact of default rules on economic behavior. We primarily focus on the effect of legislation on cadaveric organ donations. We show how the involvement of the family in the
Warning: You are about to be nudged
Presenting a default option is known to influence important decisions. That includes decisions regarding advance medical directives, documents people prepare to convey which medical treatments they
Changing defaults in biobank research could save lives too
TLDR
It is concluded that instead of presuming that individuals do not wish to contribute to the advancement of healthcare through biobank research on previously taken samples, ethics committees should presume that they do.
Putting Public Policy Defaults to the Test: The Case of Organ Donor Registration
ABSTRACT There is growing interest within public management in using governance tools to influence citizens’ behavior, including changing “choice architecture” by manipulating defaults. This article
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