Do Botanophila flies provide reproductive isolation between two species of Epichloë fungi? A field test.

  title={Do Botanophila flies provide reproductive isolation between two species of Epichlo{\"e} fungi? A field test.},
  author={Thomas L Bultman and Adrian Leuchtmann and Terrence J. Sullivan and Austin P. Dreyer},
  journal={The New phytologist},
  volume={190 1},
Epichloë spp., fungal endophytes of cool season grasses, produce collars of mycelium (stromata) on host stems that Botanophila flies visit for egg laying. Flies transfer fungal gametes among stromata and thereby serve to cross-fertilize fungi. Hence, the interaction is analogous to insect pollination in angiosperms. While most Epichloë species are not interfertile, Epichloë typhina and Epichloë clarkii can hybridize. We investigated whether Botanophila flies play a role in the reproductive… 
Botanophila—Epichloë Interaction in a Wild Grass, Puccinellia distans, Lacks Dependence on the Fly Vector
In grass-infecting Epichloë (Ascomycetes: Clavicipitaceae) fungi, the transfer of spermatia for fungal fertilization depends on an insect vector: flies of the genus Botanophila, which are present every year in only one population of P. distans.
Biology and evolution of the Epichloë-associated Botanophila species found in Europe (Diptera: Anthomyiidae)
New sequences of the mitochondrial genes COI and COII are obtained from a representative sample of 17 European Botanophila and Chiastocheta species including all six Epichloe-associated species, as well as from four outgroup taxa suggesting that ancestral Botanophile may have expanded its niche to European fungal hosts once and then successfully radiated while exploiting fungal tissue as additional food source.
The occurrence and preference of Botanophila flies (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) for particular species of Epichloë fungi infecting wild grasses
The results of this study confirm that there is not a close species specific association between this fungus and this insect.
Genetic Evidence for Reproductive Isolation Among Sympatric Epichloë Endophytes as Inferred from Newly Developed Microsatellite Markers
Genotypic evidence of the maintenance of reproductive isolation of the species in a context of sympatry is provided and the hypothesis of genetic discontinuities among the taxa is supported.
A Historic Perspective of Endophytes in Vascular Plants and Their Role in Environmental Sustainability
This chapter outlines a historical perspective of endophytes including ethnobotanical approach to drug discovery and provides upto date information on the emerging role ofendophytes in the sustainability of pasture and economy of agriculture, thereby contributing to the environmental sustainability.
Genomewide signatures of selection in Epichloë reveal candidate genes for host specialization
Signature of positive selection in these isolates and putative identification of pathogenic function supports the findings that these genes represent strong candidates for host specialization determinants in Epichloë endophytes, and highlights the role of secreted proteins as key determinants of host specialization.
New record for the fungus Mariusia andegavensis Pons and Boureau (1977) for the Albian of NE Iberian Peninsula: a possible related plant–arthropod interaction
We present the oldest report of Mariusia andegavensis Pons and Boureau that also constitutes the first evidence of this taxon from the Albian deposits of the Iberian Peninsula (Escucha locality,
Hongos endófitos epichloë asociados a lolium perenne: identificación y producción de alcaloides
Las plantas con Epichloe tuvieron menor concentracion de P, Ca, S, B, fibra neutro detergente y lignina, y mayor contenidos de Mn y mejor digestibilidad que las plantas no infectadas, y se encontro una relacion entre el contenido de alcaloides y el morfotipo del endofito.


Botanophila flies on Epichloë host species in Europe and North America: no evidence for co‐evolution
Comparison of molecular phylogenetic relationships of Botanophila species with those of the associated Epichloë hosts did not suggest co‐evolution of the fungus and the fly, but indicated that up to four different Botanphila taxa can be present at a single location.
The interaction of a Botanophila fly species with an exotic Epichloë fungus in a cultivated grass: fungivore or mutualist?
If obligatory mutualism in the fungus–fly relationship described from the midwestern USA is the norm, studies suggest a shift in the interaction to one of simple foraging on the fungus by fly larvae.
The cost of mutualism in a fly-fungus interaction
The lack of over-exploitation of the fungus by the fly shows that the interaction was stable during the period of time the study was conducted, suggesting the stability was primarily due to high fly egg/larval mortal-ity that increased as egg load increased.
Role of odour compounds in the attraction of gamete vectors in endophytic Epichloë fungi.
Although ratios of emitted compounds vary in different Epichloë species, this seems not to lead to specialized attraction of Botanophila flies, and low selective pressure for specialization may have maintained a more generalist interaction between fungi and flies.
EPICHLOE SPECIES: fungal symbionts of grasses.
  • C. Schardl
  • Environmental Science, Biology
    Annual review of phytopathology
  • 1996
Epichloë species and their asexual descendants (Acremonium endophytes) are fungal symbionts of C3 grasses that span the symbiotic continuum from antagonism to mutualism depending on the relative
Mating compatibility and phylogenetic relationships among two new species of Epichloë and other congeneric European species.
Epichloe species are endophytic symbionts of grasses which may differ in the relative importance of their sexual or asexual life cycles and are the only documented case of highly antagonistic strains interfertile with highly mutualistic strains.
A new kind of mutualism between fungi and insects
It is observed spiralling patterns of perithecial development on fungal surfaces, signifying the behaviour of the fly results in cross fertilization of the fungus, the first documentation of active fertilization in an insect-fungus mutualism.
Three species of Epichloe are described and two, E. baconii and E. clarkii, are proposed as new, being distinguishable from the type by disarticulation of ascospores to form uniquely shaped part-spores.
Sexual cycle and horizontal transmission of the grass symbiont, Epichloë typhina
Results suggest that, following mating, male hyphae proliferate and heterokaryons may sometimes form and also proliferate, and it is demonstrated that ascospores mediate infection of new host plants.