Do “Brain-Training” Programs Work?

@article{Simons2016DoP,
  title={Do “Brain-Training” Programs Work?},
  author={Daniel J. Simons and Walter R. Boot and Neil Charness and Susan E. Gathercole and Christopher F. Chabris and David Z. Hambrick and Elizabeth A. L. Stine-Morrow},
  journal={Psychological Science in the Public Interest},
  year={2016},
  volume={17},
  pages={103 - 186}
}
In 2014, two groups of scientists published open letters on the efficacy of brain-training interventions, or “brain games,” for improving cognition. The first letter, a consensus statement from an international group of more than 70 scientists, claimed that brain games do not provide a scientifically grounded way to improve cognitive functioning or to stave off cognitive decline. Several months later, an international group of 133 scientists and practitioners countered that the literature is… Expand
A Large-Scale, Cross-Sectional Investigation Into the Efficacy of Brain Training
TLDR
Cross-sectional data from two large Internet-cohort studies are analyzed to determine whether cognition differs at the population level for individuals who report that they brain train on different devices, and across different timeframes, with programs in common use circa 2010–2013, and to suggest an efficacy for brain training over an extended period of time. Expand
Brain-Training Pessimism, but Applied-Memory Optimism
  • J. McCabe, Thomas Redick, R. Engle
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Psychological science in the public interest : a journal of the American Psychological Society
  • 2016
TLDR
It is concluded that existing cognitive-training methods are relatively ineffective, despite their popularity and increasing market share, and small samples are predominantly the reason irregular pretest-posttest patterns have been observed in the control groups in various working-memory and video-game intervention studies. Expand
Evaluating the Effectiveness of Commercial Brain Game Training with Working-Memory Tasks
Commercial brain games are home- and computer-based cognitive trainings that are industrially offered and promise to enhance cognitive functioning by repeating cognitive tasks. Despite compellingExpand
Targeted training: Converging evidence against the transferable benefits of online brain training on cognitive function
TLDR
This study calls into question the benefit of cognitive training beyond practice effects, provides a new framework for future investigations into the efficacy of brain training, and provides an objective definition and quantitative metrics for task selection. Expand
How to play 20 questions with nature and lose: Reflections on 100 years of brain-training research
TLDR
This review examines why this substantial corpus has failed to answer the often-asked question, “Does cognitive training work?” and defines cognitive training and discusses the general principles underlying training interventions. Expand
Enhancing Cognition: Historical and Contemporary Debates
For over 200 years, philosophers, psychologists, and neuro-scientists have tried to discern the fundamental components and functions of the human brain. Their efforts have often focused on the waysExpand
No Evidence for Expectation Effects in Cognitive Training Tasks
A great deal of recent empirical and theoretical work has examined whether it is possible to enhance cognitive functioning via behavioral (cognitive) training. While a growing body of researchExpand
Evidence for Narrow Transfer after Short-Term Cognitive Training in Older Adults
TLDR
Although the results were not positive with respect to broad transfer of training, longer duration studies with larger samples and the addition of a retention period are necessary before the benefit of this specific intervention can be ruled out. Expand
Computerized neurocognitive interventions in the context of the brain training controversy
TLDR
It is suggested that advanced ICT-based tools, such as virtual and augmented reality technologies, are the most fitting platforms for applying nonpharmacological computerized neurocognitive interventions for older adults. Expand
Video Game Training Does Not Enhance Cognitive Ability: A Comprehensive Meta-Analytic Investigation
TLDR
Video game training represents no exception to the general difficulty of obtaining far transfer and is tested with three random-effects meta-analytic models, finding no evidence of a causal relationship between playing video games and enhanced cognitive ability. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 416 REFERENCES
Do you believe in brain training? A questionnaire about expectations of computerised cognitive training
"Brain training" (i.e., enhancing, rehabilitating, or simply maintaining cognitive function through deliberate cognitive exercise) is growing rapidly in popularity, yet remains highly controversial.Expand
Brain training in older adults: Evidence of transfer to memory span performance and pseudo-Matthew effects
  • S. McDougall, B. House
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Neuropsychology, development, and cognition. Section B, Aging, neuropsychology and cognition
  • 2012
TLDR
Although the Brain Training package appeared to have some efficacy, other factors such as perceived quality of life and perceived cognitive functioning were at least equally important in determining training outcomes. Expand
No evidence of intelligence improvement after working memory training: a randomized, placebo-controlled study.
TLDR
This study compared young adults who received 20 sessions of practice on an adaptive dual n-back program or an adaptive visual search program with a no-contact control group that received no practice, and found no positive transfer to any of the cognitive ability tests. Expand
Brain Training Game Boosts Executive Functions, Working Memory and Processing Speed in the Young Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial
TLDR
The scientific evidence was shown which the brain training game had the beneficial effects on cognitive functions (executive functions, working memory and processing speed) in the healthy young adults. Expand
On methodological standards in training and transfer experiments
TLDR
Because each of the sub-areas above (aerobic training through brain training) share strong similarities in goal, theoretical framework, and experimental approach, it is sought to discuss issues from a general perspective that considers each as members of the same broad “training” domain. Expand
Brain Training Game Improves Executive Functions and Processing Speed in the Elderly: A Randomized Controlled Trial
TLDR
The results showed that playing Brain Age for 4 weeks could lead to improve cognitive functions (executive functions and processing speed) in the elderly, indicating that there is a possibility which the elderly could improve executive functions andprocessing speed in short term training. Expand
The role of individual differences in cognitive training and transfer
TLDR
The present study resolves some of the methodological limitations of previous studies and also considers individual differences as potential explanations for the differing transfer effects across studies, and observes that transfer to a composite measure of fluid reasoning resulted from both WM interventions. Expand
What counts as evidence for working memory training? Problems with correlated gains and dichotomization
TLDR
It is demonstrated that the apparent transfer effects observed through responder analysis are illusory and are independent of the effectiveness of cognitive training. Expand
Chapter 10 – Cognitive Interventions
Publisher Summary Research findings in recent years from both animal models and on human learners converge clearly on the conclusion that there is plasticity in brain and behavior throughout theExpand
Short- and long-term benefits of cognitive training
TLDR
It is concluded that cognitive training can be effective and long-lasting, but that there are limiting factors that must be considered to evaluate the effects of this training, one of which is individual differences in training performance. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...