The aim of the study was to evaluate the biosynthesis and exudation of 10 low-molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) into the rhizosphere with a simultaneous analysis of the acid contents in the roots and leaves of 9 Salix taxa growing on two experimental areas, differing in their concentrations of copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in the soil (Area 1—low, Area 2—high concentration). The obtained results reveal a significant difference in the phytoextraction of the tested Salix taxa for the analysed metals in both areas. The highest contents of Cu, Pb and Zn were observed for all Salix collected from Area 2, especially in S. × smithiana roots (116 ± 8.76, 87.84 ± 7.30 and 203.42 ± 14.62 mg kg−1 DW, respectively). The results obtained in Area 2 also revealed acidification of the rhizosphere and a higher concentration of acids, mainly oxalic, malic, malonic, acetic and citric acids. Contents of oxalic, malic, acetic and citric acids increased in the roots of Salix taxa from Area 2, while in the leaves formic and succinic acids were also present. S. × smithiana was the taxon with the highest concentration of acids in the rhizosphere and roots (73.48 ± 6.77 and 49.79 ± 2.65 μM 100 g−1 DW, respectively), while in leaves a higher content was observed for S. alba and S. viminalis ‘PR’ taxa (78.12 ± 3.95 and 71.12 ± 3.75 μM 100 g−1 DW, respectively).