Diversity of G proteins in signal transduction

  title={Diversity of G proteins in signal transduction},
  author={Michael G. Simon and MP Strathmann and N Gautam},
  pages={802 - 808}
The heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) act as switches that regulate information processing circuits connecting cell surface receptors to a variety of effectors. The G proteins are present in all eukaryotic cells, and they control metabolic, humoral, neural, and developmental functions. More than a hundred different kinds of receptors and many different effectors have been described. The G proteins that coordinate receptor-effector activity are derived from a large… 
G proteins: Critical control points for transmembrane signals
  • E. Neer
  • Biology
    Protein science : a publication of the Protein Society
  • 1994
The role of both a and by subunits in regulation of effectors, the role of the βγ subunit in macromolecular assembly, and the mechanisms that might make some responses extremely specific and others rather diffuse are discussed.
Heterotrimeric Guanine Nucleotide Binding Proteins: Structure and Function
The ability to sense and appropriately respond to extracellular signaling molecules and those regulated by heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide binding proteins are one of the most important properties of an individual cell within a multicellular organism.
Evolution of the mammalian G protein α subunit multigene family
The murine chromosomal locations of all 15 Gα subunit genes are determined using an interspecific backcross derived from crosses of C57BI/6J and Mus spretus mice to provide insight into the events responsible for generating the genetic diversity found in the mammalian α subunits.
Regulation of cellular signals by G-proteins
Extracellular signals are transduced across the cell by the cell surface receptors, with the aid of G-proteins, which act at a critical point of signal transduction and cellular regulation.
Complex information processing by the transmembrane signaling system involving G proteins
It is becoming obvious that G proteins form the basis of a complex membranous signaling network which allows the cell to coordinate and to process incoming signals already on the level of the plasma membrane.
Guanine nucleotide binding regulatory proteins: their characteristics and identification.
  • N. AliD. Agrawal
  • Biology
    Journal of pharmacological and toxicological methods
  • 1994
In vivo functions of heterotrimeric G-proteins: studies in Gα-deficient mice
Some of the new insights into the biological role of G-protein mediated signaling processes provided by the analysis of mice genetically engineered to lack distinct G- protein α-subunits are described.
X-ray crystallography of G ,G , and G subunits will guide the investigation of structure-function relationships and only recently has the G subunit been recognized as a signal transduction molecule in its own right.
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  • C. Malbon
  • Biology, Chemistry
    Biochemical pharmacology
  • 1997
Signal Transduction Pathways and Heterotrimeric G Proteins
In eukaryotic cells, many environmental stimuli are sensed by a class of receptors known as the seven-helix family, which are predicted to contain seven transmembrane helical domains that anchor them to the plasma membrane.


G protein diversity: a distinct class of alpha subunits is present in vertebrates and invertebrates.
  • M. StrathmannM. Simon
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1990
The family of genes that encode the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins is much larger than had previously been supposed and it is suggested that these alpha subunit may be involved in pertussis toxin-insensitive pathways coupled to phospholipase C.
Identification of receptor contact site involved in receptor–G protein coupling
The mammalian G proteins transduce information from extracellular signals, including neurotransmitters, hormones and sensory stimuli, into regulation of effector enzymes or ion channels within cells.
Diversity of the G-protein family: Sequences from five additional α subunits in the mouse
The polymerase chain reaction is used to detect additional gene products in mouse brain and spermatid RNA that share these conserved regions of highly conserved amino acid sequence, suggesting the complexity of the G protein family is much greater than previously suspected.
G protein diversity is increased by associations with a variety of gamma subunits.
Diversity in the structure of the gamma as well as the alpha and beta subunits and preferential associations between members of subunit families increase structural and possibly functional diversity of G proteins.
The cellular functions of small GTP-binding proteins.
This article will discuss a particular family of Ras-related small guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins, structurally related to the Ras oncoprotein, which appear to be involved in controlling a diverse set of essential cellular functions.
Role of G proteins in calcium channel modulation.
Modulation of Ca2+ -penneable ion channels by honnones and neurotransmit­ ters is accomplished by reversibly interacting signal transduction components of the plasma membrane and the cytosol. The
G proteins in signal transduction.
  • L. Birnbaumer
  • Biology
    Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology
  • 1990
The last five years have seen major advances in our understanding of the central and generalized role of G-proteins as transducers of receptor signals into effector responses as outlined in Scheme 1.
Molecular basis of regulation of ionic channels by G proteins.
Ionic channels and their regulation by G protein subunits.
It is now clear that G proteins also couple membrane receptors to ionic channels by a cytoplasmically independent, membrane-delimited path­ way, and it is likely that ionsic channels will join adenylyl cyclase and cGMP phosphodiesterase and possibly phospholiphase (PLC) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) as direct targets for G proteins.