Diversity and Function of Adaptive Immune Receptors in a Jawless Vertebrate

@article{Alder2005DiversityAF,
  title={Diversity and Function of Adaptive Immune Receptors in a Jawless Vertebrate},
  author={Matthew N. Alder and Igor B. Rogozin and Lakshminarayan M. Iyer and Galina V. Glazko and Max D. Cooper and Zeev Pancer},
  journal={Science},
  year={2005},
  volume={310},
  pages={1970 - 1973}
}
Instead of the immunoglobulin-type antigen receptors of jawed vertebrates, jawless fish have variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs), which consist of leucine-rich repeat (LRR) modules. Somatic diversification of the VLR gene is shown here to occur through a multistep assembly of LRR modules randomly selected from a large bank of flanking cassettes. The predicted concave surface of the VLR is lined with hypervariable positively selected residues, and computational analysis suggests a repertoire of… 

Structural insights into the evolution of the adaptive immune system: the variable lymphocyte receptors of jawless vertebrates

TLDR
The independent evolution approximately 500 million years ago of LRR-based and Ig-based receptors of comparable diversity and antigen-binding properties provides evidence for the survival value of adaptive immunity in vertebrates.

Variable Lymphocyte Receptors in Jawless Vertebrates: Illuminating the Origin and Early Evolution of Adaptive Immunity

TLDR
Despite differences in molecular architecture, the parallel ‘two-arms’ of the AIS evolved within the context of preexisting innate immunity and maintained over a long period of time in jawed and jawless vertebrates, respectively, as a consequence of powerful and enduring evolutionary selection pressure by pathogens and other factors.

Variable Lymphocyte Receptors: A Current Overview.

  • M. Kasahara
  • Biology
    Results and problems in cell differentiation
  • 2015
TLDR
It appears that specialized lymphocytes lineages emerged in a common vertebrate ancestor and that jawed and jawless vertebrates co-opted different antigen receptors within the context of such lymphocyte lineages.

Alternative Adaptive Immunity in Jawless

TLDR
The jawless vertebrate adaptive immune system has many similarities to the Ig-based system of jawed vertebrates, including the compartmentalized development of B-like and T-like lymphocyte lineages that proliferate and differentiate into VLR-secreting plasmacytes and proinflammatory cytokine-producing cells in response to Ags.

Alternative Adaptive Immunity in Jawless Vertebrates

TLDR
The jawless vertebrate adaptive immune system has many similarities to the Ig-based system of jawed vertebrates, including the compartmentalized development of B-like and T-like lymphocyte lineages that proliferate and differentiate into VLR-secreting plasmacytes and proinflammatory cytokine-producing cells in response to Ags.

Antibody responses of variable lymphocyte receptors in the lamprey

TLDR
The VLRB-bearing lineage of lymphocytes in sea lampreys is described, which responded to repetitive carbohydrate or protein determinants on bacteria or mammalian cells with lymphoblastoid transformation, proliferation and differentiation into plasmacytes that secreted multimeric antigen-specific VL RB antibodies.

Structural Diversity of the Hagfish Variable Lymphocyte Receptors*

TLDR
The analysis of sequence variability, prediction of protein interaction surfaces, amino acid composition analysis, and structural comparison with other LRR proteins suggest that the hypervariable concave surface is the most probable antigen binding site of the VLR.
...

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