Diverse evolutionary roots and mechanistic variations of the CRISPR-Cas systems

@article{Mohanraju2016DiverseER,
  title={Diverse evolutionary roots and mechanistic variations of the CRISPR-Cas systems},
  author={Prarthana Mohanraju and K. Makarova and Bernd Zetsche and Feng Zhang and E. Koonin and J. van der Oost},
  journal={Science},
  year={2016},
  volume={353}
}
BACKGROUND Prokaryotes have evolved multiple systems to combat invaders such as viruses and plasmids. Examples of such defense systems include receptor masking, restriction-modification (R-M) systems, DNA interference (Argonaute), bacteriophage exclusion (BREX or PGL), and abortive infection, all of which act in an innate, nonspecific manner. In addition, prokaryotes have evolved adaptive, heritable immune systems: clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and the CRISPR… Expand
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