Divergent consequences of success and failure in japan and north america: an investigation of self-improving motivations and malleable selves.

@article{Heine2001DivergentCO,
  title={Divergent consequences of success and failure in japan and north america: an investigation of self-improving motivations and malleable selves.},
  author={Steven J. Heine and Darrin R. Lehman and Eisaku Ide and Chung Hang Leung and Shinobu Kitayama and Toshitake Takata and H Matsumoto},
  journal={Journal of personality and social psychology},
  year={2001},
  volume={81 4},
  pages={
          599-615
        }
}
Self-enhancing and self-improving motivations were investigated across cultures. Replicating past research, North Americans who failed on a task persisted less on a follow-up task than those who succeeded. In contrast, Japanese who failed persisted more than those who succeeded. The Japanese pattern is evidence for a self-improving orientation: Failures highlight where corrective efforts are needed. Japanese who failed also enhanced the importance and the diagnosticity of the task compared with… 

EFFECTS OF COMMUNICATING SUCCESS WITH FRIENDS ON SELF-ESTEEM IN JAPAN AND THE UNITED STATES

This paper reports on a study relevant to the psychology literature on pan-cultural self-enhancement; namely, what are some strategies by which people from non-western cultures raise their

The Psychology of Strengths and Weaknesses: Assessing Self-enhancing and Self-critical Tendencies in Eastern and Western Cultures

We examined the extent to which individuals from East Asia and North America exhibit self-enhancing and self-critical tendencies when appraising their personal strengths and weaknesses, to test

Culture, Self-Discrepancies, and Self-Satisfaction

In contrast to the reliable effects observed with North Americans, research with Japanese has failed to detect self-enhancing biases. The authors considered the possibility that, owing to the need to

Interjudge Agreement, Self-Enhancement, and Liking: Cross-Cultural Divergences

The authors investigated whether the lower self-enhancement found among Japanese is due to them being more accurate in their self-perceptions than Americans. Japanese and American participants were

Emotions in memories of success and failure: a cultural perspective.

Cultural framed emotional reactions to success and failure result in different patterns of anticipated self-regulation, and culture moderated the relations between these components of emotion and willingness to try the task again.

A Cross-Cultural Investigation of Metamotivational Beliefs About Regulatory Focus Task-Motivation Fit

Cross-cultural similarities in metamotivational beliefs were revealed and one potential cultural difference did emerge: Easterners appeared to recognize how to create task-motivation fit for both independent and interdependent outcomes, whereas Westerners only recognized how to do so for independent outcomes.

Cultural variation in the motivational standards of self-enhancement and self-criticism among bicultural Asian American and Anglo American students.

  • Akane Zusho
  • Psychology
    International journal of psychology : Journal international de psychologie
  • 2008
The purpose of the present study was to examine the assumption that independent and interdependent self-construals are associated with the motivational standards of self-enhancement and self-criticism, respectively and to discuss implications for the work on self-representations, motivation, and acculturation.

Promoting Success or Preventing Failure: Cultural Differences in Motivation by Positive and Negative Role Models

The authors predicted that individuals from collectivistic cultures, who have a stronger prevention orientation, would be most motivated by negative role models, who highlight a strategy of avoiding failure; individuals from individualistic cultures would bemost motivated by positive role models.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 103 REFERENCES

Interjudge Agreement, Self-Enhancement, and Liking: Cross-Cultural Divergences

The authors investigated whether the lower self-enhancement found among Japanese is due to them being more accurate in their self-perceptions than Americans. Japanese and American participants were

Cultural Differences in Self-Evaluation

The authors investigated compensatory self-enhancement in Japanese and Canadian university students. Research has revealed that when North Americans publicly discover a weakness in one self domain,

The cultural construction of self-enhancement: an examination of group-serving biases.

Comparisons of group-serving biases across European Canadian, Asian Canadian, and Japanese students suggest that cultural differences in enhancement biases are robust, generalizing to individuals' evaluations of their groups.

“Who Am I?” The Cultural Psychology of the Conceptual Self

This study investigated whether self-concepts that arise from participation in interdependent cultural contexts, in this case the self-concepts of Japanese students, will be relatively more sensitive

Effects of failure on subsequent performance: the importance of self-defining goals.

Examination of the role of self-defining goals in predicting performance effects of failure among students committed to professional goals revealed that failure on a task characterized as being relevant to students' professional self-definition led to enhanced performance on a subsequent task relevant to the same self- definition.

Is there a universal need for positive self-regard?

The need for positive self-regard, as it is currently conceptualized, is not a universal, but rather is rooted in significant aspects of North American culture.

Unpackaging Culture’s Influence on Self-Esteem and Embarrassability

A growing body of research supports the notion that individuals simultaneously hold two views of self. Members of collective cultures have stronger interdependent images of self, but less strong

Standing out and standing in: The psychology of control in America and Japan.

There are at least two general paths to a feeling of control. In primary control, individuals enhance their rewards by influencing existing realities (e.g., other people, circumstances, symptoms, or

On knowing when to quit: Task failure, self‐esteem, advice, and nonproductive persistence

Past research has found the performance of persons with high self-esteem to improve after failure, especially on tasks for which persistence correlates positively with performance. However,

Culture, identity consistency, and subjective well-being.

  • E. Suh
  • Psychology
    Journal of personality and social psychology
  • 2002
This research revisits the classic thesis in psychology that identity consistency is a prerequisite condition of psychological well-being and finds that people with a more consistent self-view had a more clear self-knowledge, were more assertive, and had self-experiences that were less affected by the perspectives of others.
...