Divergent consequences of success and failure in japan and north america: an investigation of self-improving motivations and malleable selves.

@article{Heine2001DivergentCO,
  title={Divergent consequences of success and failure in japan and north america: an investigation of self-improving motivations and malleable selves.},
  author={S. Heine and D. R. Lehman and E. Ide and C. Leung and S. Kitayama and T. Takata and H. Matsumoto},
  journal={Journal of personality and social psychology},
  year={2001},
  volume={81 4},
  pages={
          599-615
        }
}
Self-enhancing and self-improving motivations were investigated across cultures. Replicating past research, North Americans who failed on a task persisted less on a follow-up task than those who succeeded. In contrast, Japanese who failed persisted more than those who succeeded. The Japanese pattern is evidence for a self-improving orientation: Failures highlight where corrective efforts are needed. Japanese who failed also enhanced the importance and the diagnosticity of the task compared with… Expand
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