Diurnal patterns of urinary steroid excretion in wild chimpanzees.

@article{Muller2003DiurnalPO,
  title={Diurnal patterns of urinary steroid excretion in wild chimpanzees.},
  author={Martin N Muller and Susan F. Lipson},
  journal={American journal of primatology},
  year={2003},
  volume={60 4},
  pages={
          161-6
        }
}
Urinary testosterone and cortisol concentrations were quantified in a large number of samples (>500) collected from wild male chimpanzees (n=11) over the course of 1 year. For both steroids, urinary concentrations were higher and more variable in the morning than in the afternoon. Urinary creatinine levels showed no such diurnal pattern. These patterns are consistent with studies of steroid excretion in humans and gorillas. This study emphasizes the importance of considering time of day as a… CONTINUE READING
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