Disuse of the musculo-skeletal system in space and on earth

@article{Narici2010DisuseOT,
  title={Disuse of the musculo-skeletal system in space and on earth},
  author={Marco Vincenzo Narici and M. D. de Boer},
  journal={European Journal of Applied Physiology},
  year={2010},
  volume={111},
  pages={403-420}
}
Muscle mass and strength are well known to decline in response to actual and simulated microgravity exposure. However, despite the considerable knowledge gained on the physiological changes induced by spaceflight, the mechanisms of muscle atrophy and the effectiveness of in-flight countermeasures still need to be fully elucidated. The present review examines the effects and mechanisms of actual and simulated microgravity on single fibre and whole muscle structural and functional properties… 
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