Disuse of the musculo-skeletal system in space and on earth

  title={Disuse of the musculo-skeletal system in space and on earth},
  author={Marco Vincenzo Narici and M. D. de Boer},
  journal={European Journal of Applied Physiology},
Muscle mass and strength are well known to decline in response to actual and simulated microgravity exposure. However, despite the considerable knowledge gained on the physiological changes induced by spaceflight, the mechanisms of muscle atrophy and the effectiveness of in-flight countermeasures still need to be fully elucidated. The present review examines the effects and mechanisms of actual and simulated microgravity on single fibre and whole muscle structural and functional properties… 
The NeuroMuscular System: From Earth to Space Life Science
To overcome disuse atrophy, reliable countermeasures need to be developed in the laboratory on the ground and in real space experiments that should help to combat disused muscle and help to stimulate functional brain areas related to sensorimotor control.
Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation as a Potential Countermeasure for Skeletal Muscle Atrophy and Weakness During Human Spaceflight
An overview of the rationale and evidence for NMES based on the terrestrial state-of-the-art knowledge is provided, and this to that used in orbit, and in ground-based analogs in order to provide practical recommendations for implementation of NMES in future space missions.
Potential exercise countermeasures to attenuate skeletal muscle deterioration in space
It may be possible for BFR exercise to attenuate muscle function declines in a zero g environment because BFRercise is not dependent upon higher exercise loads, and the muscular adaptations occur in the absence of higher loads.
Contractile behavior of the gastrocnemius medialis muscle during running in simulated hypogravity
Examining the effects of running on the vertical treadmill facility, a ground-based analog, at simulated 0.7 g on gastrocnemius medialis contractile behavior reveals that fascicle−series elastic element behavior differs between simulated hypogravity and 1’g running, which may inform the development of optimized running training in hypog gravity.
Dissociation of Bone Resorption and Formation in Spaceflight and Simulated Microgravity: Potential Role of Myokines and Osteokines?
In this review, the different mechanisms and factors that regulate the humoral crosstalk between the muscle and the bone are highlighted and the interplay between currently known myokines and osteokine and their mutual regulation is focused on.
Musculoskeletal adaptation to space flight
Current medical data on how the musculoskeletal organs adapt to space flight and the results of countermeasures to maintain Earth normal bone and muscle form and function are reviewed.
Longitudinal time course of muscle impairments during partial weight-bearing in rats
It is demonstrated that both muscle mass and muscle function are significantly impaired in reduced weight-bearing environments as early as after 7 days of suspension, and it is shown that muscular alterations are correlated to the PWB level and do not reach a plateau during a 1-month exposure to reduced Weight-bearing.
Predictive Simulation of Rowing Exercise
A computational model of an arm based on human musculoskeletal simulation and optimal control was used to investigate the effects of mechanical properties of the exercise machine on predicted human performance.
Loss of Muscle and Bone During Spaceflight
The next five chapters deal with the MusculoSkeletal System, the largest system of the body and both its structure and function are involved, and a suggested integration of the content of these chapters into a more effective countermeasure program is suggested.
The role of exercise and amino acid supplementation in disuse-induced muscle and tendon atrophy and subsequent active recovery
The results indicate that the loss of muscle force with 3-week unloading in humans is mostly explained by muscle atrophy and a decrease in myosin content, and all the neuromuscular changes induced by this model of disuse can be fully restored after a resistance training intervention of equal duration.


Neuromuscular adaptation to actual and simulated weightlessness.
Functional and structural adaptations of skeletal muscle to microgravity.
The major effects of space travel on skeletal muscle with particular emphasis on factors that alter function are muscle atrophy and the associated decline in peak force and power, and weightlessness reduces the ability of the slow soleus to oxidize fats and increases the utilization of muscle glycogen, at least in rats.
Effect of short-duration spaceflight on thigh and leg muscle volume.
The results suggest that atrophy as a result of at least 2 wk of spaceflight varied among individuals and muscle groups and that the degree of atrophy appeared to be greater than that induced by 20 d of bed rest.
Physiology of a microgravity environment invited review: microgravity and skeletal muscle.
Evidence in rats indicates that SF increases fatigability and reduces the capacity for fat oxidation in skeletal muscles, and the microgravity-induced decline in peak power is partially offset by the increased fiber velocity.
Effects of long-term spaceflight on mechanical properties of muscles in humans.
This invariance suggests an adaptive mechanism to counterbalance the decrease in stiffness of passive structures by an increased active stiffness, and changes in neural drive could participate in this equilibrium.
Effects of 17-day spaceflight on knee extensor muscle function and size
The results of this study do contrast with the findings of no decrease in maximal voluntary ankle plantar flexor force previously reported in the same crew, but the magnitude of these changes concord with earlier results from ground-based studies of similar duration.
From space to Earth: advances in human physiology from 20 years of bed rest studies (1986–2006)
Head-down bed rest (HDBR) has proved its usefulness as a reliable simulation model for the most physiological effects of spaceflight and this review points to clinical applications of BR research revealing the crucial role of gravity to health.
The effects of long-term simulated microgravity on neuromuscular performance in men and women
  • Y. Koryak
  • Biology
    European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology
  • 1999
It can be concluded that not only were the contractile properties of the triceps surae muscle significantly different in the men and the women, but that the effects of exposure to simulated microgravity on these properties were also different.
[Effect of weightlessness and hypokinesia on the velocity-strength properties of human muscles].
A comparable analysis of the above exposures demonstrated that the changes observed after long-duration exposures were associated with atrophic changes due to disuse while those seen after short-term effects were induced, as shown previously, by reflex tonic shifts related to support unloading.
Muscles in microgravity: from fibres to human motion.