Disturbed dreaming, posttraumatic stress disorder, and affect distress: a review and neurocognitive model.

@article{Levin2007DisturbedDP,
  title={Disturbed dreaming, posttraumatic stress disorder, and affect distress: a review and neurocognitive model.},
  author={Ross Levin and Tore Nielsen},
  journal={Psychological bulletin},
  year={2007},
  volume={133 3},
  pages={482-528}
}
Nightmares are common, occurring weekly in 4%-10% of the population, and are associated with female gender, younger age, increased stress, psychopathology, and dispositional traits. Nightmare pathogenesis remains unexplained, as do differences between nontraumatic and posttraumatic nightmares (for those with or without posttraumatic stress disorder) and relations with waking functioning. No models adequately explain nightmares nor have they been reconciled with recent developments in cognitive… CONTINUE READING
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