Impact of intraventricular hemorrhage measured by Graeb and LeRoux score on case fatality risk and chronic hydrocephalus in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage
In 138 patients with ruptured cerebral aneurysms operated on within 48 to 72 hours after subarachnoid hemorrhage, an external ventricular drainage catheter was inserted before craniotomy and was used intermittently during the first week after surgery. In 51 patients, intracranial pressure (ICP) was measured intraoperatively. The majority of patients showed increased ICP intraoperatively irrespective of the preoperative Hunt and Hess grade and the amount of subarachnoid blood accumulation or intraventricular blood clot. Intraoperative drainage of cerebrospinal fluid allowed easy access for aneurysm dissection by making the brain slack in more than 90% of patients. Postoperative ICP measurements revealed that significant brain swelling did not occur in the majority of patients. In 7 patients, persistently elevated ICP (greater than 20 mm Hg) was recorded. Nine patients (8%) developed shunt-dependent hydrocephalus; all of these patients had suffered an intraventricular hemorrhage. Measurements of the volumes of cerebrospinal fluid drained did not allow prediction of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus.