Disturbance of wildlife by outdoor winter recreation: allostatic stress response and altered activity-energy budgets.

  title={Disturbance of wildlife by outdoor winter recreation: allostatic stress response and altered activity-energy budgets.},
  author={Rapha{\"e}l Arlettaz and S{\'e}bastien C. Nussl{\'e} and Marjana Baltic and Peter A. Vogel and Rupert Palme and Susanne Jenni-Eiermann and Patrick Patthey and Michel Genoud},
  journal={Ecological applications : a publication of the Ecological Society of America},
  volume={25 5},
Anthropogenic disturbance of wildlife is of growing conservation concern, but we lack comprehensive approaches of its multiple negative effects. We investigated several effects of disturbance by winter outdoor sports on free-ranging alpine Black Grouse by simultaneously measuring their physiological and behavioral responses. We experimentally flushed radio-tagged Black Grouse from their snow burrows, once a day, during several successive days, and quantified their stress hormone levels… CONTINUE READING
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