Disturbance of emperor penguin Aptenodytes forsteri chicks by helicopters

@article{Giese1999DisturbanceOE,
  title={Disturbance of emperor penguin Aptenodytes forsteri chicks by helicopters},
  author={Melissa Giese and Martin J. Riddle},
  journal={Polar Biology},
  year={1999},
  volume={22},
  pages={366-371}
}
Abstract Creching emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) chicks were exposed to two overflights by a Sikorsky S-76, twin engine helicopter at 1000 m (3300 ft), a current operational guideline of the Australian Antarctic Division for helicopter activity in Antarctica. The flights were conducted on the same day but under different wind conditions: a morning flight with a 10-knot (18 km h−1) katabatic wind blowing perpendicular to the direction of helicopter travel, and an afternoon flight with… Expand

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