Distribution of prothymosin alpha in rat and human adrenal cortex

  title={Distribution of prothymosin alpha in rat and human adrenal cortex},
  author={Tom{\'a}s Garc{\'i}a-Caballero and Fernando Dom{\'i}nguez and Elena Ros{\'o}n and Rosalı́a Gallego and Juan Zalvide and Jerónimo Forteza and A Beiras},
  journal={The Anatomical Record},
Background: Prothymosin alpha (ProT) is a polypeptide widely distributed in the organism and expressed by cell types with a high proliferative capacity. The aim of the current work was to investigate if ProT was localized in the progenitor compartment of the adrenal cortex which, following the cell migration theory, corresponds to the zona glomerulosa. 
10 Citations
Prothymosin Alpha Location in the Proliferative Compartments of the Digestive Tract Epithelium
The finding that intracellular distribution of the prothymosin alpha in the digestive tract epithelia is identical to that found in other tissues supports the idea that prothyon alpha must play a universal role in proliferating cells. Expand
In vitro immunodetection of prothymosin alpha in normal and pathological conditions.
This review deals with the so far reported antibodies along with the related immunodetection methodology for ProTα (immunoassays as well as immunohistochemical, immunocytological, immunoblotting, and immunoprecipitation techniques) and its application to biological samples of interest, in health and disease states. Expand
Development of ELISA to estimate thymosin α1, the N terminus of prothymosin α, in human tumors
We reported that tumor content of prothymosin α (ProT α) is a proliferation index of human breast tumors that might be used to identify patients at high risk for distant metastasis (Dominguez et al.,Expand
Complex regulation of prothymosin alpha in mammary tumors arising in transgenic mice
regulation of PTA in these tumors is complex and depends on more than a single activated oncogene, as shown by MYC depletion experiments performed with antisense oligonucleotides. Expand
Detection of prothymosin alpha in oocytes and embryos of Bufo arenarum.
Prothymosin alpha was detected by immunocytological and biochemical methods in oocytes at different stages of oogenesis, and in early embryos of the amphibian Bufo anenarum, indicating that this protein could act at the level of regulating transcription. Expand
Expression of Prothymosin alpha during the spermatogenesis of the spotted ray Torpedo marmorata.
Prothymosin alpha (Ptma), a small, unfolded, negatively charged protein, is present in the cartilaginous fish Torpedo marmorata and immunolocalization procedures demonstrate that the protein is preferentially localized in the cytoplasm, whereas a nuclear localization is observed in round and elongated spermatids. Expand
Prothymosin α Stimulates Ca2+-dependent Phosphorylation of Elongation Factor 2 in Cellular Extracts*
It is proposed that calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase III is responsible for the PTA-dependent EF-2 phosphorylation, and PTA could have a more general function modulating the activity of various Ca2+/CaM-dependent enzymes along the cell cycle. Expand
Binding of human prothymosin alpha to the leucine-motif/activation domains of HTLV-I Rex and HIV-1 Rev.
The binding activity of prothymosin alpha to Rev or Rex was completely abolished when the epsilon-amino groups of its lysine residues were chemically modified by N-succinimidyl-3-(4-hydroxy-3,5-diodo- phenyl)propionate. Expand
Tumour prothymosin alpha content, a potential prognostic marker for primary breast cancer
The hypothesis that tumour high PTA levels is associated with a worse outcome is supported, as determined by univariate analysis. Expand
Urine prothymosin-alpha as novel tumor marker for detection and follow-up of bladder cancer.
It is revealed that urine prothymosin-alpha has the potential of being a useful tumor marker for the detection and follow-up of bladder cancer. Expand


Prothymosin α is a nuclear protein
It is postulate that prothymosin α is located inside the cell nucleus and that its activity might be to organize some protein complexes. Expand
Prothymosin alpha expression is associated to cell division in rat testis
It is suggested that ProT is present in the proliferative cycle in the final steps of G1 phase, throughout the S and G2 phases and in initial steps of the prophase. Expand
Prothymosin α is a nuclear protein
It is shown that prothymosin α migrates to the nucleus at a rate comparable to that of histone H1, and cannot be a hormone in the usual sense of the word. Expand
Cellular distribution of prothymosin alpha and parathymosin in rat thymus and spleen.
The results do not support an exclusive role for these peptides as immune system hormones or cytokines. Expand
The expression of prothymosin alpha gene in T lymphocytes and leukemic lymphoid cells is tied to lymphocyte proliferation.
Data show that ProT alpha mRNA levels change with the maturation stage of T-cells, and the amount of prothymosin alpha transcript is increased in lymphocytes from human patients with leukemias, indicating a role for ProTalpha linked to lymphocyte proliferation. Expand
Distribution of prothymosin alpha in rat tissues.
A radioimmunoassay, using a rabbit antiserum directed against thymosin alpha 1, was employed to detect the presence of crossreacting peptides in rat tissues, and the major immunoreactive peptide, after extraction and purification by a procedure that avoids proteolytic modification, was identified as prothymos in alpha, a peptide containing approximately equal to 112 amino acid residues. Expand
Prothymosin alpha: isolation and properties of the major immunoreactive form of thymosin alpha 1 in rat thymus.
A polypeptide containing approximately equal to 112 amino acid residues, with the thymosin alpha 1 sequence at its NH2 terminus, has been isolated from rat thymus by using a radioimmunoassay with anExpand
Identification of a low‐M r acidic nuclear protein as prothymosin α
It is found that prothymosin α is a rather abundant nuclear protein in rat thymus; its concentration is comparable to that of a well‐characterized nonhistone protein HMG‐14, which suggests that its function is related to those of other long polyacidic regions containing nuclear proteins. Expand
Cellular levels of thymosin immunoreactive peptides are linked to proliferative events: evidence for a nuclear site of action.
A relation of intracellular TIP levels to IEC-6 cell proliferation and also a nuclear site of action is supported and a peak of immune reactivity that elutes in the position of T alpha 1 is revealed. Expand
The MYC protein activates transcription of the alpha‐prothymosin gene.
It is concluded that the product of MYC acts directly on transcription, in accord with inferences based on the structure of the MYC protein, and that the protein may play a role in the proliferation of mammalian cells. Expand