Distribution of lacosamide in the rat brain assessed by in vitro slice technique.

Abstract

Lacosamide is a newer anticonvulsant and is the only one that enhances the slow inactivation of voltage gated sodium channels. It is also claimed to have disease-modifying potential, but its pharmacokinetic properties have been much less discussed in the literature. In rats, lacosamide shows restricted distribution to tissues, and the brain-to-plasma partition coefficient (Kp) is only 0.553. In this study, the brain disposition of lacosamide was evaluated in rat brains, and its neuropharmacokinetic parameters (i.e., protein binding and intracellular accumulation) were assessed using in vitro methods. Brain slice experiments and brain homogenate binding studies were performed for several drugs acting on the central nervous system, and drugs were assayed by using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry system. By applying a combined approach, it was found that (1) the unbound volume of distribution in the brain for lacosamide (Vu,brain = 1.37) was lower than that of other classical anticonvulsants; (2) the unbound fraction of lacosamide in the brain (0.899) was slightly lower than its unbound fraction in plasma (0.96); (3) the unbound intracellular-to-extracellular concentration ratio of lacosamide was 1.233, meaning that lacosamide was accumulated in the intracellular space because of its physicochemical properties and zwitterionic structure; and (4) the unbound brain-to-plasma concentration ratio of lacosamide was lower than the total brain-to-plasma concentration ratio (Kp,uu,brain = 0.42 vs. Kp = 0.553). In conclusion, the limited brain distribution of lacosamide is not related to its nonspecific protein-binding capacity; rather, an active transport mechanism across the blood-brain barrier may be involved, which reduces the anticonvulsant and/or antiepileptogenic actions of this drug.

DOI: 10.1007/s12272-017-0966-2

Cite this paper

@article{Gll2017DistributionOL, title={Distribution of lacosamide in the rat brain assessed by in vitro slice technique.}, author={Zsolt G{\'a}ll and Szende Vancea}, journal={Archives of pharmacal research}, year={2017} }